Outline and evaluate the multi-store model (12) | A01Atkinson and Shiffrin argued that there are three memory stores: 1. sensory store 2. short-term store 3. long-term storeAccording to the theory information from the environment is initially received by the sensory stores.
(There is a sensory store for each sense.) Some information in the sensory stores is attended to and processed further by the short-term store. In turn some information processed in the short-term store is transferred to the long-term store through rehearsal or verbally repeating it. The more something is rehearsed the stronger the memory
trace in the long-term memory. The main emphasis of this model is on the ...view middle of the document...
The cognitive interview involves a number of techniques:mentally reinstate the environmental and personal context of the crime report the incident from different perspective, Recounting the incident in a different narrative order. Geiselman & Fisher proposed that due to the recency effect, Witnesses are asked to report every detail, even if they think that detail is trivial. Geiselman et al. (1985)Aim: .Method: Results: Conclusion | Geiselman (1985) compared recall of some witnesses who had normal cop interview with those who had done a CI. Means: Normal Cop Interview: 29 correct statements Cognitive Interview: 41 correct statements. Supports the idea that the CI improves recall, perhaps by using cues and context to tease out more detail from witnessesHard to assess effectiveness as CI is composed of several techniques, and different police forces have tended to use different versions of it, making comparisons difficultCI can be time consuming, often requiring more time to do fully than police officers haveGeiselman and Fisher (1997) found that CI works best when used within a short time following a crime rather than a long time afterwards, Could limit their usefulness if it takes too long to find / interview witnesses |
Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on eyewitness testimony. | Loftus (1975)The aim of this study was to discover the influence of misleading information on eye-witness testimony.150 participants Group 1: Group 2: A week later 17.3% of the group that were provided with the misleading question, gave the incorrect answer of ‘yes’. Only 2.7% of the other group said ‘yes’.- that misleading information can alter the mental representation a witness has of an event, consequentially reducing their accuracy. Eyewitness Testimony (Loftus and Palmer) (1975):AIMS:PROCEDURES:45 American students formed an opportunity sampleThis was a laboratory experiment with 5 conditions. FINDINGS:CONCLUSIONS:language can have a distorting effect on Eyewitness testimony, which can lead to inaccurate accounts of witnessed events. | The research lacks mundane realism, It also differs from real life in that the P’s knew that something interesting was going to be shown to them, and were paying full attention to it. - This research by Loftus and Palmer is important in showing that the memories of eyewitnesses can easily be distorted. - The P’s witnessed a brief film, which may have contained much less information than would be available when observing an incident or crime in real life. |
Outline and evaluate studies that have investigated the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony | Loftus (1979) The role of anxiety in eyewitness testimonyAim: To find out whether anxiety in eyewitness testimony affected later identification.
It was concluded that a weapon focuses the attention and narrows the focus of attention, resulting in accurate central details but less accurate...