Review of Related Literature (Appendix C)
Gender differences have become on the hotlist of critical issues around the world. Hausmann, Tyson, & Zahidi (2009) reported that there is no country in the world that has yet reached equality between women and men in different critical areas such economic participation or education.
It is well accepted that there are no differences in the general intelligence or basic cognition between males and females, the issue is whether each category is innately better at certain, very specific, skills. The cognitive differences that have been put forward include men being slightly better than women at tasks that involve the mental ...view middle of the document...
Men, on the other hand, seem to assume and accept that the workplace is a competitive environment, and competition sometimes includes delivering and receiving verbal jabs. They discovered form recent study of the University of Chicago that men are 94 percent more likely than women to apply for a job with a salary potential that is dependent on outperforming their colleagues. This would support the general view that men experience work as a forum for applying their skills, delivering results and beating their competitors.
Trudgill found that 60 percent of female use standard-high status speech forms while males use non standard, low-status speech forms. In working class speech, female get 68 percent in over-reporting. Farhady found that female students are significantly better than male students on a listening comprehension test in the study of 800 university students who take a placement test. Women are superior in verbal ability than men. One of the statement supporting this theory is women are more likely to excel in verbal ability, but men, in mechanical ability (Papalia and Olds).In addition, Papalia and Olds also say that from adolescence throughout adulthood, females out- perform male in reading, speaking, spelling and grammar. They start to talk earlier and do better on vocabulary (as cited in Selasa, 2009).
Dr. Pfaff (2013) found out that female as managers are indeed better than their male counterparts at the softer skills such as communication, teamwork, feedback and empowerments. But they’re also more decisive, better at goal setting, planning and facilitating change.
Investigating academic performance at pre-collegiate level (as cited in Economic Research Center [ERC], 2004) explain that Lao finds that female students to obtain higher CGPA( Cumulative Grade point Average) compared to males. Examining sex-related difference in classroom grades, Kimball shows that in contrast to standardized measures of mathematics achievement tests like SAT-M3 , female students outperform males in math classes. Wilberg and Lynn arrive at a similar conclusion for history classes vs. history tests. The authors explain this pattern by stating that females tend to work more conscientiously and have a stronger work ethic than males. They also tend to have better language abilities including essay writing skills, vocabulary and word fluency which contribute to better course work.
Stage and Kloosterman note that although gender differences in math achievement continue to exist on high cognitive level tasks at the high school level, such differences appear to be declining. Young and Fisler examining SAT-M scores of high school seniors, find males to score better than females.
In higher education women are often found to outperform men. Hyde and Kling state this to be the case irrespective of the measure of success used. Betts and Morell report that gender remains a significant predictor of CGPA after controlling for...