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Motivational Theories And Applications Essay

2716 words - 11 pages

Motivational Theories and Applications
Professor Teri Michael
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
MGM 335
Organizational Behavior Principles
Deborah Cantin
January 20, 2014
Motivational Theories and Applications
This paper introduces three motivational theories with models. Each one provides a different method for motivating individuals in the workplace. We also discuss how Myers-Briggs (MBIT) factors into motivation. Employees need motivation based on their psychological and physical needs according to Abraham Maslow, Fredrick Herzberg, and the use of Myers-Briggs to identify individual behavioral traits.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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This figure explains the criteria needed to achieve these needs in the workplace or in an individuals’ personal life. Employees must have the ability to rest, which includes working reasonable hours with refreshment breaks. The employee should feel a safe on the job and in their working conditions. The individual needs to feel accepted and have a sense of belonging with their supervisor and co-workers. Workers who feel their lower needs are met work towards becoming highly productive workers and seek opportunities for advancement through the company. When Esteem and Self-actualization needs are achieved, the worker begins to participate in decision-making and takes on leadership roles.
Managers can apply this theory by providing a safe working environment which encourages career development using positive affirmations and role modeling. The employee must feel they are safe to express themselves to their managers. Workers who feel secure tend to work harder for their employers. When employees have their needs met they start to develop higher expectations of themselves and they seek higher levels of responsibility.
Strengths and Weaknesses
One strength in utilizing Maslow’s theory is that managers can apply rewards once they identify which level the employee is currently at. Another strength involves following the model from the bottom up, which provides great potential in the business world. The theory in general is a good concept. Workers who have their physiological and psychological needs met are happy and balanced. When this occurs, individuals begin to seek higher-levels of achievement.
This theory has weaknesses too. One weakness is that some employees may not want their needs met or seek advancement. Maslow chose a specific pool of people and did not think about demographics or cultural backgrounds. An employee’s behavior can signal lack of several needs not just one in particular. There is no real method of measurement in determining when an individual’s needs are sufficiently met. This leads me to believe that an individual’s needs vary based on environment and circumstances. I believe that Self-actualization is a continual process based on maintaining this level of achievement. Once an individual loses a lower-level need, the climb back to the top is harder with each circumstance, (such as health, loss of job, relationship etc.).
Options and strategies
One option is to provide workers with low self-esteem, goals and objectives that help build this area. Managers who see employees who are struggling with belonging and acceptance in the work place assigns a buddy to help the person adjust and become part of the team. One strategy is to conduct team building exercises tied to achieving department goals. Another strategy is to pay employees according to their job performance. This strategy encourages employees to perform at higher-levels when incentives are paid-out to the employee.
Fredrick Herzberg’s...

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