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Motivation Essay

8449 words - 34 pages

Motivation is the driving force that causes the flux from desire to will in life. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.

Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex.

Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires and goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior.

Contents

1 Types of theories and models
...view middle of the document...

1.1.1 Motivating potential score
3.1.2 Employee recognition programs
3.2 Drugs
3.3 Education
3.3.1 Indigenous education and learning
3.3.2 Self-determination in education
3.3.3 Physical activity in education
3.3.4 Healthy sleeping habits in education
3.4 Business
3.5 Games
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading

Types of theories and models
Motivational theories

A class of theories about why people do things seeks to reduce the number of factors down to one and explain all behaviour through that one factor. For example, economics has been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. [1] Mono-motivational theories are often criticized for being too reductive or too abstract.
Conscious and unconscious motivations

A number of motivational theories emphasize the distinction between conscious and unconscious motivations. In evolutionary psychology, the "ultimate", unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions. For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male's genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the conscious rationalization could be, "I loved her at the time". [2]

Freud is associated with the idea that human beings have many unconscious motivations that cause them to make important decisions because of these unconscious forces, such as choosing a partner.
Psychological theories and models

Motivation can be looked at as a cycle where thoughts influence behaviors and behaviors thus drive performance. Performance will impact thoughts and the cycle becomes cyclical. Each facet is composed of many multi-faceted dimensions where attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal all affect the amount of motivation one has.
Rational motivations

The idea that human beings are rational and human behaviour is guided by reason is an old one. However, recent research (on Satisficing for example) has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality. The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic (internal) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation.

Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s.The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in...

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