Unit: 4001V1 Managerial styles and behaviours
1 Understand assumptions about human nature and managerial behaviour.
1.1 Identify models which make suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work.
1. Kolb’s Learning Cycle
Researcher and organisational psychologist David Kolb states that knowledge results from the interaction between theory and experience. He states that learning takes place in four stages in a cycle that continues the more we learn.
This learning cycle shows a model of learning through experience. For complete learning to occur, we must progress through all four stages of the cycle. Experiential learning takes place when:
* a person is involved in an ...view middle of the document...
Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.
Where Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is shown with more than five levels, these models have been extended through interpretation of Maslow's work by other people. These augmented models and diagrams are shown as the adapted seven and eight-stage Hierarchy of Needs pyramid diagrams and models.
1970s adapted hierarchy of needs model, included cognitive - knowledge, meaning and aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form
1990s adapted hierarchy of needs included transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self-actualization
Abraham Maslow created the original five level Hierarchy of Needs model, and for many this remains entirely adequate for its purpose. The seven and eight level 'hierarchy of needs' models are later adaptations by others, based on Maslow's work. Arguably, the original five-level model includes the later additional sixth, seventh and eighth ('Cognitive', 'Aesthetic', and 'Transcendence') levels within the original 'Self-Actualization' level 5, since each one of the 'new' motivators concerns an area of self-development and self-fulfilment that is rooted in self-actualization 'growth', and is distinctly different to any of the previous 1-4 level 'deficiency' motivators. For many people, self-actualizing commonly involves each and every one of the newly added drivers. As such, the original five-level Hierarchy of Needs model remains a definitive classical representation of human motivation; and the later adaptations perhaps best illustrate aspects of self-actualization.
3. McGregor's – Theory X and Theory Y
Social psychologist Douglas McGregor developed two contrasting theories on human motivation and management in the 1960s: The X Theory and the Y Theory. McGregor promoted Theory Y as the basis of good management practice, pioneering the argument that workers are not merely cogs in the company machinery, as Theory X-Type organisations seemed to believe.
The theories look at how a manager's perception of what motivates their team members affects the way they behave. By understanding how your assumptions about employees’ motivation can influence your management style, you can adapt your approach appropriately, and so manage people more effectively.
Understanding the Theories
Your management style is strongly influenced by your beliefs and assumptions about what motivates members of your team: If you believe that team members dislike work, you will tend towards an authoritarian style of management; On the other hand, if you assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, you will tend to adopt a more participative style.
This assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this view, management must actively intervene to...