Models of Crisis Intervention
Carolina A. Pagan
Natural disasters come fast and leave fast but the communities are left with long and difficult injuries. They can be physical, monetary, family structure, and mental injuries and they do not leave along with the hurricane or ease up quickly like the earthquake, they stay around leaving many in need of multiple services. Communities are not ready most of the time and crisis intervention models have been created along the way in the aftermath of several disasters. These models include an important element used today when natural disasters strike and it is called Psychological First Aid (PFA). Many professionals and ...view middle of the document...
O'Brien and Gullion (2008) said that in times of natural disasters sometimes survivors do not know that mental health services are available to them, and many times they don’t search for these much needed services due to their priorities standing in other basic areas of concern like what they will eat, where they will sleep, and finding their loved ones. O'Brien and Gullion (2008) explained that this is the reason crisis intervention models are put in place with people from different professional backgrounds, to reach out to the ones enduring the traumatic experience. Ng et al. (2009) explained how in times of disaster like the earthquake of 2008 in Wenchuan in the Sichuan province of China, a large composition of crucial relief with arm forces and disaster personnel were quickly in charge of supplying immediate basic response. “Over 250 000 people were directly injured and millions of others were indirectly affected through loss of family members, friends, homes, schools and communities” (Ng et al., 2009, p 51). The awareness of psychological anguish made the Chinese government implement a rapid psychosocial operation model in which humanitarians and experts of multiple levels of proficiency entered the devastated area to be there for the survivors (Ng et al., 2009). This was also the case in another type of natural disaster when hurricane Katrina hit the United States.
Osofsky (2008) talked about the multiple ways mental health services for hurricane Katrina survivors were given in settings like offices, refuges, and places where families had to be transported to. In cases of natural disasters, services need to be easily transported to different settings because anything can happen at any time, and at any place. “Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, becoming the third most deadly hurricane in the history of the country” (Aten, Topping, Denney, & Hosey, 2011, p 15). Osofsky (2008) mentioned how imminent it was for the mental health services to be an almost spontaneous consequence to the disaster’s aftermath. Osofsky (2008) explained how a month and a half later the initial responders were populated in a cruise in Julia Street Harbor while traveling into town to offer their services every day. In these two instances of earthquake and hurricane, some models were already in place and from them new ideas were created to adapt better to each individual situation and population.
Aten et al. (2011) said that participatory action research was one of the models utilized in Katrina’s aftermath, defined as an impartial approach that conjunctively places analysts and individuals from the area affected, in recognition of the incomparable exclusive abilities, aptitudes, and cognition they brought forward. The education model purpose was to capacitate the African American clergy in the affected area to be knowledgeable in the practices of mental health during natural disaster and make the residents of this...