1. Managerial work is inherently hectic, varied, fragmented reactive disorderly and political. Brief oral interactions predominate (be in the majority) and many these involve people outside the manager’s immediate work unit and chain of command. Decisions processers are highly political, and most planning is informed and adaptive. (Ref Page – 17)
2. Decision making and problem solving – different people involved in making a decision after disagree about the true nature of a problem and the likely outcomes of various solutions, due to different perspectives, assumptions and values typical of managers from different functional background and specialties. A prolonged, highly political ...view middle of the document...
Figure head Role- formal authority as the head of organization or one of its subunits, managers are obliged to perform certain symbolic duties of a legal and social nature. These duties include signing documents (contracts, expense authorization), presiding at certain meetings and ceremonial events (retirement dinner for a subordinate), participating in other rituals or ceremonies, and receiving official visitors. The manager must participate in these activities even though they are usually of marginal relevance to the job of managing.
Monitor Role – managers continually seek information from a variety of sources, such as reading reports and memos, attending meetings and briefings and conducting observational tours. Some of the information is passed on to subordinates (disseminator role or to outsiders (spokesperson role) Most of the information is analyzed to discover problems and opportunities, and to develop an understanding of outside events and internal processes within the manager’s organizational subunit.
Disseminator Role – Managers have special access to sources of information not available to subordinates. Some of this information is factual (honest), and some of it concerns the stated preferences of individuals desiring to influence the manager, including people at high levels of authority. Some of the information must be passed on to subordinates, either in its original form or after interpretation and editing by the manager.
Spokesperson Role – managers are also obliged to transmit information and express value statements to people outside their organizational subunit. Middle managers and lower-level managers must report to their superiors; a chief executive must report to the board of directors or owners. Each of these managers is also expected to serve as lobbyist and public
Entrepreneur Role – manager of an organization or one of its subunits acts as an initiator and designer of controlled change to exploit opportunities for improving the existing situation. Planned change takes place in the form of improvement projects such as development of a new product, purchase of new equipment, or reorganization of formal structure. Some of the improvement projects are supervised directly by the manager, and some are delegated to subordinates.
Disturbance Handler Role - manager deals with sudden crises that cannot be ignored, as distinguished from problems that are voluntarily solved by the manager to exploit opportunities (Entrepreneur Role) . Crises are caused by unforeseen events, such as conflict among subordinates, the loss of a key subordinate, fire or accident, strike and so on.
Resource Allocator Role – manager exercise their authority to allocated resources such as money, personnel, material, equipment, facilities, and services. This role is involved in managerial decisions about what is to be done, in the manager’s authorization of subordinates’ decisions, in the preparation of budgets, and in...