Pharmacology Need To Knows
Drugs in use today come from three main sources: natural sources, chemical synthesis, and biotechnology.
Natural sources include plants, animals, and minerals.
Examples of current drugs made from plants include atropine from the roots of the belladonna plant (Atropa belladonna; deadly nightshade), digitalis from the leaves of the purple foxglove, and morphine from the seeds of the opium poppy.
Animals provide a source for some drugs, particularly hormones.
Drugs derived from hogs are porcine.
Drugs derived from cattle are bovine.
Gold is used, as in aurothrioglucose (Solganal), an anti-arthritic agent.
Synthetic drugs are drugs that are synthesized from ...view middle of the document...
A standing order, or protocol, is used for common situations requiring a standard treatment.
A standing order of this type informs the operating room team that the indicated medication should be ready on the sterile back table as a standard part of the setup for that procedure.
Verbal orders are commonplace in surgery, as a surgeon may request a particular drug to be administered either from the sterile field or by the anesthesia provider.
Often given verbally,STAT orders indicate that a drug is to be administered immediately and one time only.
Drugs may be in solid, semisolid, liquid, or gas form. The form of drug administered affects both the onset of drug actions and the intensity of the body's response to the drug.
Many drugs come prepared in solid form. These drugs may be in capsule (cap) or tablet (tab) form and administered orally.
Such powders must be mixed with a liquid (reconstituted) to form a solution that can be administered by injection.
Lidocaine (Xylocaine) jelly for topical anesthesia, Silvadene cream for burns, estrogen cream for vaginal packing, and neosporin ointment for wound dressing.
A solution is a mixture of drug particles (called the solute) fully dissolved in a liquid medium (called a solvent such as water or saline).
A suspension is a form in which solid undissolved particles float (are suspended) in a liquid.
Just before handling a medication in suspension to the surgeon, simply roll the syringe or vial between your fingers or palms to mix the suspended particles evenly.
Another type of liquid medication form is an emulsion, in which the medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier.
The most common emulsion used in surgery is propofol (Diprivan), an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent is used for anesthesia.
The only common medications available in gas form are inhalation anesthetic agents.
In addition to the drug form, the route by which a drug is given can affect onset time and body response.
The three major categories of medication...