Chapter 3: Catering for the cultural
and social environment of international marketing
What is culture?
* ‘Culture is the total way of life in a society’ (Fletcher, 1979)
* Culture is the collective programming of the mind (Hofstede, 1980)
Elements of culture
* Material culture: technology and economics
* Social institutions: concerned with the way people relate to each other
* Relations with the universe: religion, superstition, and impact on value systems
* Aesthetics: activities and art forms and dance all have a role in interpreting symbolic meanings in each culture.
* Language: differ in the way they convey meanings
The impact of culture on ...view middle of the document...
In low context cultures messages have to be explicit, in high context cultures less information is required in the verbal message. In low context cultures, for example like Northern Europe, a person's word is not to be relied on, things must be written. On the other hand, in high context cultures, like Japan and the Middle East, a person's word is their bond. It is primarily a question of trust.
Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural differences:
Measuring culture on a global basis
Power distance: This is the degree to which less powerful people in a culture accept the existence of inequality and the unequal distribution of power as a normal situation.
Uncertainty avoidance: This is the extent to which people in a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.
Individualism/ collectivism: this reflects the extent to which people in a culture look after their own interests and those of their immediate family, and where ties are loose.
Masculine/ feminine: Cultures use...