India is amongst the ancient civilizations with rich historical legacies and cultural traditions. It shares a border with seven countries namely; Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This denotes the diversity it has within its mainstream culture and subcultures, in terms of language, religion, ethnicity and mindset.
It is a nation of extensive inconsistencies, with its emergence in the global market as opposed to its restricted economy of labour, capital and knowledge. However these inconsistencies are caused by the contradictory national and managerial mindset goes on to the confidence Indians have in their abilities and future. Bever et al (2005) found, ...view middle of the document...
Historical and Cultural Background
The culture in India is an exhibit of its past, which is reminiscent of its synergistic and mixed religious history (Sen, 2005). He emphasizes on rationality in Indian mindsets. Samii et al. (2008) propose that history shapes institutions and institutions shape the economy and should not be neglected. The main idea of history comes from religion, as it is usually defined as a way of life. Hinduism is amongst the oldest religions, predominantly in India, and plays a major role in the mindset of and behavioral aspect, which in turn affects the cultural traditions of India. Vedantic philosophy is one of the primary foundations directing human behavior and is commonly applied in management texts as well as executive training programs in India. Historic Hindu scriptures highlight four main pillars; Dharma as conscientious and ethical base, Artha is realistic challenges, Kama being worldly motivation and Moksha as self-actualization. These act as the principal basis that nurtures character, institutions and society. These religious values are becoming prevalent in areas of management, improvement of organisation culture and strategy. A prime example of this can be seen through the influential Tatas that recognizes Dharma as guidance to increased managerial execution. This can contribute to the wider concept of worldwide management (Chatterjee and Nankervis, 2007). Chakraborty (1998) suggests that India has the drive to offer a unique contribution towards management studies, given it grows up as a nation.
Religion also acts a major divide amongst Indians. Muslims ruled India for almost five centuries and so had quite an impact on India’s cultural and political scene. Being the largest minority, out of eight prominent religions in India, the influence of Islam is undeniable on Indian culture. It raided Indian culture not to coincide with it but to mitigate it completely. Nevertheless, it could never convert to a Muslim country, and so acts as a controversial topic of distrust and cynicism, in conjunction with a common culture. It was the main reason for the partition of India and Pakistan and so creates a drift of religious beliefs within individuals that hinder a sense of nationalism, which may also come in to the workplace as a bias (Tarkunde, 1990).
Indians are sought of upholding a contrast in behavior towards institutions and its own individual self (Lannoy, 1971). This dichotomy is steered by behavioural variables as follows; ‘Desh’ is the setting or place, ‘Kaal’ is the timing and ‘Patra’ is the particulars of the situation, which altogether assimilate collectivism in a work-related organisational framework (Sinha and Kanungo, 1997). Moreover, the historical caste system plays an integral role in the discord of social strata and fueled inequality. They were grouped in four bands; the Brahmins held the highest rank as priests, scholars and educators, followed by the Kshatriyas preserved social...