Topic 1: Managing
• What is it?
• Efficiency and Effectiveness
• The process of getting things done effectively and efficiently, with and through people
• “Doing the right things”, doing those tasks that help an organisation reach its goals
• Concerned with the means, efficient use of resources like people, money, and equipment (“Doing things right”)
• Who are Managers?
• Levels of Managers
• Responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organisation.
• Examples; President, Chief Executive Officer, Vice-President
• Manage the activities of other managers.
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Steps involved include
➢ First understand the determinants of culture
➢ Decide if the culture needs to be maintained or changed
➢ If the culture is to be maintained reinforce it with symbols, ceremonies, reward and modelling
➢ If it is to be changed be clear about how. External change agents may help
• Conduct a cultural analysis to identify cultural elements needing change
• Make it clear to employees that the organisation’s survival is legitimately threatened if change is not forthcoming
• Appoint new leadership with a new vision
• Initiate a reorganisation
• Introduce new stories and rituals to convey the new vision
• Change the selection and socialisation processes and the evaluation and reward systems to support the new values
Topic 3: External & International Environments
• Economic Dimension
• Socio-Cultural Dimension
• Political-Legal Dimension
• Technological Dimension
• International/Global Dimension
• Strategic Partners
• Interest Groups
• Employees, Labour Markets, Unions
Systems View of Organisations
• Systems theory sees an organisation as a set of interrelated parts
• The parts function together to achieve a common purpose.
• An organisational system has five components:
– Inputs - material, human and informational resources
– Transformation process - activities used to transform inputs into outputs
– Outputs - organisational products
– Feedback – about the outputs
– The environment - provides feedback
Changing Environments and Environmental Uncertainty
• Environmental complexity - determined by the number of external factors affecting the organisation
– Simple environments – few factors
– Complex environment – many factors
• Resource availability – How abundant are critical resources in an organisation’s external environment
– Abundant resources – plenty of resources
– Scarce resources – few resources
• External organisational environment – forces and conditions outside the organisation that can affect it
• Employee Expectations
• Customer Expectations
• Quality Control and Continuous Improvement
Type of economy: . In a capitalist economy, individuals or corporations own the means of production and market forces operate. In
a socialist economy, a central government owns the means of production and plans all economic activity.
Most national economies combine some elements of each form. For example, Australia and New Zealand are mostly capitalist economies but their governments do have some market control. The People’s Republic of China is closer to the socialist end of the spectrum but is becoming more capitalist.
Current economic conditions affect organisations by influencing costs, prices and demand for products and services.
For example, when inﬂation is high, companies pay more for...