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Management And Marketing Essay

1453 words - 6 pages

Cercetarea de marketing

1) Definirea cercetarii de marketing, continutul si sfera cercetarilor de markegting
Orice activitate de marketing trebuie sa aiba ca punctde plecare cercetarea. Nu se poate face lansarea unui produs, adoptarea unei strategii de piata, de cucerire a unor noi segmente de piata fara ca in prealabil sa se realizeze o cercetare amanuntita a tuturor factorilor, variabilelor care pot influenta si pot asigura succesul activitatii respective.
Activitatea de marketing are in vedere anticiparea miscarilor, deplasarilor, mutatiilor ce au loc pe piata dar si in cadrul intern al firmei. Aceste informatii care au specialistilor in marketing viziunea asupra ...view middle of the document...

- Informatiile obtinute in timpul cercetarii contribuie si la programarea rentabilitatii firmei
In opinia specialistului englez R. Birn, cercetarile de marketing trebuie sa se indrepte in doua directii:
1. planificarea la nivel de firma prin obtinerea de informatii necesare pentru luarea unor decizii pe permen mediu si lung;
2. revizionarea pietei.
Aria cercetarilor de marketing se axeaza in principal pe piata, dar aceasta nu este limitata, trebuind sa se ia in considerare si alte domenii care pot influenta activitatea si rezultatele firmei. Domeniile principale ale cercetarii de marketing sunt:
1. Firma – avand in vedere obiectivele, strategiile, tacticile acesteia, resursele umane, financiare, informationale, materiale, de care dispune,calitatea managementului;
2. Piata – este de fapt doemniul cel mai important avand in vedere dimensiunile pietelor, localizarea lor, structurile si tipurile de piete, corelatiile dintre cerere si oferta de pe piata, diferiti factori de influenta de pe piata, etc.
3. Studierea nevoilor de consum si de utilizare
4. Comportamentul consumatorului are in vedere factorii care influenteaza comportamentul
5. Cercetarea mix-ului de Marketing imbinarea celor 4p (produs, pret, plasare si promovare)
6. Conjunctura economico-sociala in care se desfasoara activitatea firmei – inflatie, somaj, marire venituri, disponibilizari, vanzarea firmelor de la stat la particular, etc.

2) Tipologia cercetarilor de marketing
Cercetarile de marketing se pot clasifica dupa mai multe criterii:
1. dupa natura surselor de informatie avem:
a. cercetari de birou – se bazeaza pe date statistice, anuare, documente sau studii elaborate anterior, etc.;
b. cercetari de teren – se fac pe teren, pe piata prin contact nemijlocit cu purtatorii de informatii, utilizand diferite metode (chestionare, interogare, fotografie, observatii, instantanee);
2. dupa obiectul cercetarii existente:
a. cercetari exploratorii – pentru identificarea coordonatelor fenomenelor de piata, si a factorilor de influenta. Se realizeaza prin studii pilot, experimente de laborator;
b. cercetari instrumentale – realizate pentru confirmarea sau infirmarea folosirii unor anumite metode sau tehnici de catre marketing;
c. cercetari descriptive – urmaresc descrierea unui anumit fenomen de piata fara identificarea cauzelor;
d. cercetari explicative cauzale – se bazeaza pe principiul cauza-efect;
e. cercetari predictive – au scopul previzionarii unui fenomen pe piata, pe termen lung.
3. dupa frecventa desfasurarii:
a. cercetari permanente – au grad de complexitate mai mic si care urmaresc informarea curenta a agentilor economici;
b. cercetari periodice – care se desfasoara la anumite intervale de timp, au un caractere mai complex, privind evolutia unuia sau mai multor fenomene de pe piata;
c. cercetari ocazionale – se fac...

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