UNIT 1 IP
The founder of Psychodynamic is SIGMUND FREUD (1856–1939) is
the most recognizable figure in psychologyeven to this day . Freud was a medical doctor in
late 19th-century Vienna.
After being unable to cure his patienets through hypnosis he encouraged them to
talk about their problems, a therapeutic practice called psychoanalysis.
By understanding what the connections between past trauma and present discomfort
Freud’s patients were often relieved of their symptoms. Freud compared the structure of
the human mind to an iceberg. The tip of the iceberg represents the conscious mind.
Below the surface are ...view middle of the document...
championed a therapeutic technique called client-centered therapy. Te therapist
expresses unconditional empathy, or acceptance and understanding, of the client’s
Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) investigated processes related to human moti-
vation. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs proposed that all humans must satisfy basic needs,
such as physiological necessity of food, water, and shelter, before they can realize their
talents to the fullest.
Humanistic psychology, which emphasizes the integrity of
the individual, arose partly in reaction to behaviorism’s neglect of internal mental
states. Te cognitive–behaviorist approach proposes that maladaptive behaviors are
learned and can be replaced with healthier alternatives.
The following are the underlying assumptions of the Confucian
humanistic perspectiveswhich have led to major discussions in the literature
concerning humanistic adult education: human nature, the self and autonomy,
and self-actualization andselfcultivation.
Unlike the Freudians who see human nature as disruptive an pessimistic,humanists
psychology are that human...