Topic:LCD (LIQUED CRYSTAL DISPLAY)
Submitted to: Submitted by: Bindu
LCD projectors are becoming smaller and less expensive, and are starting to incorporate built-in light sources and speakers. LCD panels are also improving in resolution and response. An LCD panel is fairly light and thin, but require a separate overhead projector. The LCD projector contains its own light source, so no overhead projector is required. These have more multimedia features than LCD panels, and usually include speakers and multiple inputs and outputs. Polysilicone LCDs are smaller, and allow more light to pass through than ...view middle of the document...
LCs do not emit light directly. LCDs therefore need a light source and are classified as "passive" displays. Some types can use ambient light such as sunlight or room lighting. There are many types of LCDs that are designed for both special and general uses. They can be optimized for static text, detailed still images, or dynamic, fast-changing, video content.
Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparentelectrodes, and two polarizingfilters, the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer.
The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectionally rubbed using, for example, a cloth. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).
Before applying an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device), the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears grey. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray.
LCD with top polarizer removed from device and placed on top, such that the top and bottom polarizers are parallel.The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy, however, because of small variations of thickness across the device.
Both the liquid...