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Lexical Borrowing Essay

7575 words - 31 pages

Lexical borrowing = slovní výpůjčky - adoption from another lg with the same meaning
English is tolerant to other lgs, nenasytný vypůjčovatel (70% non-anglosaxon origin), welcomes foreign words, not homogenous lg like French (majority of expressions was taken from F.)
reasons: lg feels a need for a new word; to pre-denote a special concept (Sputnik, gradually disappeared from lg; certain lg has a kind of prestigious position (matter of fashion, but overuse of English words; matter of political force); distinction of functional style (matter of development) – three synonymical expressions of diff. origin (anglo-saxon origin: home, French words (additional meanings): resindence, Latin ...view middle of the document...

přišli na britský poloostrov v 5. století. Anglo-saxon is origin lg.
Celtic lg is spoken before Anglo-Saxons arrived! Celts were romanised/latinised. C. lg did not produce a great number of long words → Anglo-Saxons vyhnali kelty z jejich teritorií, pravděpodobně ale spíše splynuli, nebo pracovali jako otroci anglosasů (jazykově však vývoj lg neovlivňovali, byli podřízeni Latin – influenced by continental borrowing; A.-S.s came into contact with Romans and they adopted into their Latin – celtic transmission; Celts were romanised=inluence by Roman cuture, et., and were christians Latin – through christianisation; brings christian teachings (Bibel, servants, prayers in Latin) Sir O´Gustin ?! Skandinavian – through the Viking invasion; 8. – 9. century = King Alfred the Great (Vikings), diff. from Latin and French, similar to Anglo-saxon lg in its original form, people could easy understand each other (Dánština a Angličtina=jako dnes Čeština a Slovenština) phonem combination sk skin, skirt – do not occur in Anglo-saxon lg; -eg leg Norman French – Normans were originally also Vikings, they at that time spoke French, invasion of William the Conqueror → two parts/halfs of society : lower level = anglo-saxon lg(=English), high positions of s. were occupied by people who spoke French; no written products of lg until G. Chaucer (literary production was written in Norman French) první sčítání lidu kvůli vybírání lidu but when E. came into use in literary lg, spisovný lg – jazykové společenství zapomnělo procesy, jak vytvářet slova ze staré angličtiny, a začalo vytvářet slova podle Norman French Latin – through Latin as a lingua franca(of scholarship)=univerzální jazyk, kt. se dorozumí mluvčí z různých jazyků; Latin was universal lg of all important documents, letters, scholars=učenec, vědec, etc. and international communication Latin – through Renaissance translations; discovery of old classical words gave rise of philosophy of R. → překlad do národních jazyků French – central French, by way of political, military, economic, cultural contacts; adoption of both ways Spanish, Italian same reasons. There was fashion that wealthy families traveled in Europe (contact of courts). Flemish, Dutch, Low German – mluví se jimi v Holandsku a Belgii; seafaring and economic Spanish, Portuguese – through contacts on the American continent (potato, tobacco) American Indian, Inuit (=jazyk eskymáků) – voyages of Exploration, everything was diff. for people from Europe, they...

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