1. Discuss the main features of the key models of management theory since 1900. How have they contributed to today’s people management practices?
This assignment will discuss the main features of the key models of management theory since 1900, it will also outline how they have contributed to today’s people management practices.
There are 4 models that will be covered in this assignment, each model contains different theories by various authors although only a few will be addressed, this assignment will start by looking at the Classical Model, the Human Relations Model, the Systems Model and then concluding with the Contingency Model.
Firstly addressed, the Classical Model is, according ...view middle of the document...
However, Taylor’s ideas although highly criticised have severely changed the way management has progressed along the years, perhaps unintentionally Taylor addressed key aspects of management that are still put in use today. According to Drucker these are; higher wages from increased outputs, the removal of physical strain from performing a job the wrong way, development of workers and the opportunity for them to undertake tasks they were capable of doing and the importance of the interaction between manager and the worker which were never considered upon beforehand. Today, Taylorism can be seen used widely throughout the world, the biggest example of Scientific Management applied in organisations is McDonald’s, the way McDonald’s applies this aspect of the classical model is by simply looking at how their employees work, no matter which McDonald’s restaurant you are in, the customer service is the same as is the way of preparing the food and this suggests there is one best way to succeed in their business.
The second sub-division of the Classical Model is Bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is, according to Boddy (2010), a “system which people are expected to follow precisely defined rules rather than to use personal judgement”. Max Weber is the main contributor to the bureaucratic aspect of the classical model of management. According to Boddy (2010), Max Weber emphasised the significance of structure and hierarchy on an individual’s position in an organisation and how this may motivate him to perform and climb up the hierarchical ladder. The rule complexity contained within a bureaucratic organisation like selection and promotion allows a space for fairness within that company as opposed to the favouritism which was common before. Bureaucracy is most efficient in large scale organisation and today according to Stewart, more and more organisations apply Bureaucracy although there isn’t much stress on rules and regulations, however many writers go to say that bureaucracy is essential to an organisation structure.
The second model addressed, the Human Relations Model, appeared during the 1920s and started taking account of the social aspect and behaviour of the employees rather than structural and organisational aspects like the Classical Model. The main impactful authors of the Human Relations Model are Mary Follet (1868-1933) and Elton Mayo.
Follet (1920) was concerned with the psychological aspect of the employees and she believed that organisations had to maximise efficiency but was highly against the idea of division of labour as she believed that this highly limited the potential growth of skill and limited human creativity, today this is essential for people management as it promotes development of skill and creativity which is essential for companies that look at being innovative, an example of this would be Google.
Mullins (2010) addresses the Hawthorne experiment observed by Elton Mayo (1880-1949) as one of the major turning points in the...