Ispitni Rad Essay

1964 words - 8 pages

Hemijsko vezivanje: Hemijske reakcije i valentnost

Osnovna premise hemijskih jedinjenja jeste da atomi u kojima su omotači ili podomotači popunjeni ili potpuno prazni su stabilni I nereaktivni, priroda preferira situacije maksimalne stabilnosti. Otuda, inertni elementi su nereaktivni jer oni imaju potpuno popunjene kvante omotače. Atomi koji imaju delimično popunjene podomotače, su hemijski reaktivni. Osim toga, atomi mogu postati stabilni ili nereaktivni gubeći elektrone kako bi ispraznili njihove podomotače, ili dobili elektrone da bi ih popunili. Na primer, Natrijum (Na) ima konfiguraciju elektrona 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 (2.8.1). Treća kvantni omotač sadrži samo jedan electron (na njenoj ...view middle of the document...

Kada proizvodnja jona nastaje gubitkom I porastom eletrona od elemenata koji su uključeni, ova vrsta hemijskog vezivanje se zove jonska. Fluor zahteva da dobije samo jedan electron da bi popunio spoljašnju lusku, ono ima visoku elektronsku sklonost I možemo ga nazvati elektronegativnim.
Obrnuto, natrijum zahteva da izgubi samo jedan electron. On ima ,malu elektronsku sklonost za kojeg možemo reći da je elektropozitivan. Tako da, elektro-negativnost je mera sposobnosti elektronskog privlačenja atoma I ono varira dužinom cele periodične table. Pravilo je, da elektronegativni elementi hemijski reaguju sa elementima elektropozitivnih tokom kojih se zamena elektrona dešava. Da bi počeli sa tim, mi znamo da bilo koji element u grupi 1 će reagovati I kombinovati sa bilo kojim elementom grupe 7. To ne znači nista u ovom stadijumu da jedinjenje formirano između dva različita elementa uglavnom nema svojstva od nijednog od njih I uobicajeno, joni formirani gubitkom odnosno dobitkom elektrona iz atoma će imati drugačija svojstva od neutralnih atoma.
Na primer, Natrijum je veoma reaktivan metal. U kontaktu sa vodom, proizvodi hidrogenski gas . Mi konzumiramo Natrijum u obliku soli koja se nalazi u našoj hrani.
Hlor je težak, zeleni, i jako opasni i toksični gas. Zbog slične elektronske konfiguracije, natrijum I hlor reaguju agresivno ako nastane kontakt, stvarajući NatrijumHlorid (NaCl)

Natrijum-Hlorid je naziv za kuhinjsku so koja je jestiva. U dodiru sa vodom, Natrijumovi i Hlorovi joni su prisutni kao bezopasni entiteti.
Jonska jediinjenja u čvrstom stanju se drže zajedno elektrostatičkim silama. Oni često formiraju dobro grupisane kristalne rešetke. Slika 3.9 pokazuje nam kako se joni formiraju u rešetci. ( Jonska rešetka aranžirana za kristalne materijale i razdaljina koja odvaja njihove entitete su izučene, izmerene i izračunate koristeći granu nauke nazvanu rendgenska kristalografija X-ray crystallography)
Slika 3.9

Elementi iz Grupe 2 imaju po 2 elektrona u njihovim krajnjim podomotačima i mogu da dobiju elektronsku konfiguraciju inertnog gasa kada izgube oba. Gubljenjem oba elekrona Be2+ dobija konfiguraciju He, Mg2+ od Ne, Ca2+ od Ar i tako dalje. Uostalom, mnogo vise energije je potrebno da bi se uklonila dva elektrona iz atoma nego samo jedan. Ovo se dešava jer uklanjanje prvog elektrona renderuje se da je atom pozitivno naelektrisan i privlačenje preostalih elektrona je povećano. Prateći ovo pravilo, još je teže da bi se uklonili svi preostali elektroni iz Grupe 3 koji sadrže 3 elektrona, oni moraju da budu uklonjeni da bi dobili željenu konfiguraciju inertnog gasa. Elementi iz Grupe III mogu formirati jone sa tri pozitivna punjenja. Na primer, Al dobija trovalentni jon Al3+.
Reaktivnost elemenata se umanjuje kako se pomeramo s leve na desnu stranu grupe. Elementi iz Grupe I su više reaktivni nego elementi iz Grupe II, elementi iz Grupe III su čak još manje. Reaktivnost ovih elemenata se smanjuje uspešno sve dok je Grupa IV...

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