Is Management An Art Or Science

1726 words - 7 pages

Introduction
There is an old controversy going on which is “Is management an art or a science?”. Management is everywhere. It can be found in offices , schools, banks, Hospitals etc. Whether it be a profit or non-profit organization, it is required for the smooth transition of the business. There is no agreed definition for the term management but according to Harold Koontz, Management is defined as “the art of getting things done through others and with formally organized groups” (Koontz, 1954)..To be effective in management, A manager should have should have undergone necessary training and Should possess some individual skills. This essay seeks to explore the question ‘Is management an ...view middle of the document...

Going to a college and getting a medical degree is not sufficient.
Secondly , Even though theoretical knowledge may be the same for every person, the skills each individual possess are different. That is the reason why few people are successful while the rest are not. It depends on the knowledge , personality of the person. For eg: There are many professional football players around the world but Cristiano Ronaldo is recognized for his style of play and his football skills.
Thirdly but not the least A person improves through practice. Similarly managers gain experience through out the years of working in the company.
Lastly, management as an art is also focused concerning pre-determined goals. Managers use different human and non-human such as men, material, money and machinery to help an organization to achieve its set goals and objectives which can lead the business to effective growth.

Management as a science

Management as a science has systematized body of knowledge, concept and principles. By using quantitative models and decision making techniques, management deals with different problems and issues to arrive at a right decision.
Those managers who believe that management as a science are liable to believe that when faced in a certain situation, there are suitable managerial practices for solving the situation. That is, when faced with a managerial problem, the manager who believes in the scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that there is a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. This manager is likely to follow general principles and theories and also by creating and testing hypotheses. For example, If a manager was not impressed with the performance of a worker he will look for ways of improving his or her performance using principles. The manager would rely on the concepts he learnt in school or through a company training program albeit paying less attention to social and political factors involved in the process.
The scientific management movement was a key factor through which scientific researchers attempted to find a best way to perform jobs. The movement led by Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth . To make work more efficient and effective they used scientific process to assess and consolidate work. This changed the managers and the employees approach towards the practice of management as the movement emphasized on reducing inefficiencies.

Management as a science
According to F.W. Taylor, science is a systematic body of knowledge which is universally accepted.
If Managers were to use precise body of facts and knowledge to guide there behaviour, It would indicate that they would believe that management is a science rather than an art.

Management is a science since it satisfies the following conditions:-
1. Universally accepted principles – Scientific principles can be applied anywhere, anytime. , E.g. – law of gravitation which can...

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