ADVANTAGES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE IN A COUNTRY
Governance definition varies from an institution to another, an author to another and from one setting to another. This paper intertwines various definitions of governance as a basis of understanding good governance, outlines the principles of good governance, and discusses the advantage of good governance based on six key principles with variance examples across the continent.
Governance refers to the manner in which public officials and public institutions acquire and exercise the authority to provide public goods and services, including the delivery of basic services, ...view middle of the document...
In summary, good governance has openness, participation, accountability, and transparency as key elements as once outlined by former president of Tanzania (Nyerere, 1998)
‘The key to a good governance is based on government's effectiveness and its ability to lead the nation which is achieved with the combination of three elements; its closeness to its people, and its responsiveness to their needs and demands. Its ability to coordinate and bring into a democratic balance the many functional and often competing sectional institutions which groups of people have created to serve their particular interests, and the efficiency of the institutions (official and unofficial) by means of which its decisions are made known and implemented throughout the country.’
1.2. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE
Good governance is open to interpretation based on six or eight core principles widely accepted. The six principles are; Participation, Decency, Transparency, Accountability, Fairness, and Efficiency (Agere, 2000; Financial mechanism, 2004-2009; United Nation, 2008; World Bank, 2006).
Other organisations view these principles as eight. An addition of consensus oriented and responsive as outlined on the below figure.
Figure 1: characteristics of good governance[pic]
*Adopted from: United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ENESCAP, 2013).
This paper will be based on six common principles with the merging of the two additional principles outlines on ENESCAP (2013). These principles are briefly outlined below as a basis of understanding the advantages of good governance.
a. Accountability: this is the act of taking responsibility on ones deeds. It involves leaders being responsible to the citizen for what they say and do.
b. Decency: the degree to which the formation and stewardship of the rules is undertaken without harming or causing grievance to people.
c. Efficiency: the use of limited human and financial resources without waste, delay or corruption on the correct intended purpose.
d. Fairness: the degree of equality to the citizen based on the constitution/rule of the land.
e. Participation: this is the degree of involvement of all shareholders and stakeholders in a country i.e. leaders and citizens.
f. Transparency: this is the act of openness and clarity in which decisions are made.
These principles are applied on different governance arenas in a country: Government as an executive stewardship of the system; Public administration as implementers of the policies; Judiciary as a legal executive; Economics, as market forces in both public and private sectors; Political society, as a base for integrating citizen interest; Civil society which works in hand with political society; and Sustainable development where environmental concerns are included (United Nation, 2008).
It is important to note governance is all round and intertwine its principle for an all round achievement. One...