Industrial Relations in India
The relationship between the employers, employees, trade unions and the government is called Industrial Relations. India is an emerging economy and the large informal sector poses a big challenge. 94% of our work force is in the informal sector where implementation of labour laws is difficult. Harmonious relationship is necessary for both the employers and employees to safeguard the interests of both the parties of production and all the other stakeholders.
Evolution of IR in India
The first phase (1947 to 1966): It was a time of import-substitution industrialization and national capitalism. Large employment-intensive public enterprises were ...view middle of the document...
67 m | 14.5% | 10.8% |
HMS | Socialist | 1.47 m | 3.22 m | 22.0% | 13.0% |
AITUC | CPI(M) | 1.07 m | 3.34 m | 8.7% | 13.5% |
Others | Regional and Independent | - | - | 7.4% | 21.7% |
In the private sector, plant-level bargaining takes place with enterprise-based unions that may (or may not) be affiliated to parliamentary political parties. In public enterprises, the centralized trade union federations that are affiliated to political parties negotiate with the state (as employer) at the industry and/or national level. The Central and state government employees in the service sector, like transportation, postal services, banking and insurance, etc, have their (typically) politically affiliated unions lobbying at the national level prior to Pay Commissions determining their wage & working conditions.
* All India Organization of Indian Employers (AIOE) aims at educating the employers about the best IR practices.
* Council of Indian Employers (CIE) ensures cooperation and coordination between AIOE and Employers Federation of India(EFI)and SCOPE
* Standing Conference on Public Enterprises(SCOPE) represents public sector enterprises
* Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) & Associated Chamber of Commerce(ASSOCHAM)
* Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 was enacted to make provisions for prevention and settlement of industrial disputes and for providing certain safeguards to the workers.
* The Trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration of trade unions of employers and workers and in certain respects, it defines the law relating to registered trade unions. It confers legal and corporate status on registered trade unions.
* The Plantations Labour Act, 1951 provides for the welfare of plantation labour and regulates the...