Indicadores Macroeconomicos Essay

1511 words - 7 pages

Tomando como tema central el concepto de macroeconomía, uno de los conceptos más importantes y nombrado por los tres autores fue el concepto de PIB (producto interno bruto)
¿Qué es el PIB?
Según Parkin: Es el valor de mercado de todos los bienes y servicios finales producidos en un país durante un cierto periodo. Esta definición contiene cuatro elementos:
* Valor de mercado: se utiliza para medir la producción total, hay que sumar la producción de bienes distinto.
* Bienes y servicios finales: es un articulo final que obitene el usuario. Contrasta con un bien intermedio, que es un componente final.
* Producidos en un país: solo los ...view middle of the document...

El crecimiento del PIB real no es una medida perfecta para estos tres propósitos, aunque tampoco es equivocada ya que excluye las mejoras en la calidad, la economía subterránea, la salud , la producción en el hogar y la esperanza de vida
Según Samuelson : El PIB es el nombre que se asigna al valor total de los bienes y servicios finales en el mercado, producidos en un país durante un año.
¿Cómo miden los economistas el PIB?
Dos medidas del producto nacional: Flujo de bienes y flujo de ingresos
Enfoque del flujo de productos.- La suma de todo el dinero gastado en consuimir los bienes de consumo final y llegara el PIB total de esta economía.
Enfoque de los ingresos o de los costes.- Se calcula como el total de los ingresos (salarios, intereses, rentas y beneficios), que son los costes de producir los productos de consumo final en la sociedad.
Como el beneficio es un residual, ambos métodos producen exactamente el mismo PIB total

Cuentas nacionales derivadas de contabilidad de las empresas
La fuente más importante de datos es la contabilidad de las empresas. Una cuenta de una empresa o paisa es un registro numérico de todos los flujos ( costes, productos)durante un periodo.
PIB real y nominal: Como deflactar el PIB mediantes un índice de precios.
PIB real: Es un índice del volumen o cantidad de bines y servicios producidos. Medimos el PIB real multiplicando la cantidad de bines por un precio fijo. 
PIB nominal: Se utilizan los precios de mercado reales de ese año. 

Deflactor del PIB: Se calcula dividendo el PIB nominal por el PIB real, lo que nos resulta un indicador general de precios. 
Para tener en cuenta las variaciones rápidas de los precios relativos se utiliza ponderaciones encadenadas para elaborar el PIB real y los índices de precios. 

La inversión y la formación de capital 
La inversión consiste en los aumento de los edificios, equipos y existencias durante un año. Implica sacrificar consumo actual para aumentar el consumo futuro. 

Inversion neta y bruta: 
Inversion neta: Es la suma de todas la maquinas, fábricas y edificios construidos durante un año menos la depreciación. La deprecion de capital se refiera a la cantidad de capital que se ha gastado durante un año. 
Inversion bruta: Significa que la inversión comprende todos los bienes de inversión producidos y no se ajusta. Es decir todas la maquinas, fábricas y edificios construidos durante un año. 

El estado
Para medir la aportación del Estado en el PIB añadimos simplemente todas estas compras del Estado al flujo de consumo, inversión y, como veremos más adelante las exportaciones netas. En este caso excluimos las transferencias que son pagos que el Estado efectúa sin recibir a cambio ninguna bien o servicio, por ejemplo, el seguro de desempleo, las prestaciones a los veteranos y las pensiones por invalidez o vejez. También se omite el pago sobre los intereses de la deuda púbica ya que se consideran una transferencia. 
Cuando el Tesoro mide sus...

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