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Human Body Structure Essay

1548 words - 7 pages

Ćelija / cellula , ae , f / je najmanja strukturna i funkcionalna jedinica organizma , odvojena ćelijskom membranom od okoline.
EUKARIOTE -čovek i PROKARIOTE-bakterije

ĆELIJSKE ORGANELE-Su potopljene u citoplazmu tj nukleoplazmu
MEMBRANSKE :Nukleus,Mitohondrije,Golđi aparat,Lizozomi, Peroksizomi , Endoplazmin retikulum
NEMEMBRANSKE :Ribozomi , Centriol ,Nukleolus ,Hromozomi

U citoplazmi mogu da se nalaze i inkluzije:glikogen,lipidi,pigmenti,kristali.
Pored ćelijskih organela / ...view middle of the document...

građa unutrašnjeg i spoljašnjeg sloja se razlikuje i imaju različite funkcije. Ugljeni hidrati se nalaze samo u spoljašnjem sloju i lumenskoj strani membrane membranskih organela. Različite ćelije takođe poseduju I različit sastav ćelijske membrane kao i različite ćelijske organele.

pH - 7, 2 -
okružuje nukleus , providna je , tečna i bezstrukturna
supstanca u kojoj se nalaze : citoskelet, organele, inkluzije
U njoj su rastvoreni mnogi : enzimi , RNK , aminokiseline , joni i različiti metaboliti
Pored tečne komponente , postoji i fina mreža mikrotrabekula , proteinskih lanaca , koja povezuje različite komponente citoskeleta , koordiniše pokrete organela i reguliše neke metaboličke procese.
Cilindrična nemembranska organela
- Čini je 9 tripleta mikrotubula
- Raspored mikrotubula oblika zupčanika
- Svaki mikrotubul ima po tri subfibrile A, B i C
- Zid subfibrile A je kompletan a čine ga : 13 protofilamenata tubulina
- Zid subfibrile B i C je nekopletan , delimično ulazi u sastav susednog mikrotubula
- Sličan je po građi bazalnom telu cilije i flagele
- Tokom interfaze, ćelija ima par centriola koji su postavljeni pod pravim uglom
Predstavlja specijalizovani region ćelije gde se nalazi centriol okružen elektronski gustom supstancom.Obično je postavljen uz jedro tj. centralno ali može zauzimati i periferan položaj.Oko centriola se nalazi pericentriolski materijal koji povezuje par centriola i γ – tubulin.Pericentriolski materijal sadrži proteine koji povezuju centrozom sa Golđi kompleksom.Tokom interfaze od njiega polaze mikrotubuli citoskeleta obrazujući mrežu koja utiče na oblik i polarizovanost ćelije.
Tokom ćelijskog ciklusa par centriola se udvostruči.U mitozi oni se razdvajaju i migriraju na suprotne polove ćelije formirajući deobno vreteno.
Centriol ne sadrži DNK ni RNK
Mikrotubuli centriola kao i mikrotubuli citoskeleta sadrže : monomere α - i - β tubulina a pericentriolski materijal sadrži : monomere γ - tubulina i neke druge proteine.

Membranske organele , ovalnog oblika , dijametra 0,5 - 1 µm , često su asocirane za mikrotubule
Imaju dve membrane , intermembranozni prostor , matrix
UNUTRAŠNJA MEMBRANA sadrži veliku količinu fosfolipida kardiolipina , pa je nepermeabilna za jone
Bogata je proteinima koji obavljaju tri različite funkcije :
1. Obavljaju oksidativne reakcije i transport elektrona
2. ATP sintaza sintetiše ATP u matriksu
3. Transportni proteini omogućavaju prolaz metabolita u i iz matriksa
Sadrži elementarne partikule koje sadrže kompleks proteina sa aktivnošću ATP sintaze.Poseduje kriste koje povećavaju njenu površinu a postavljene...

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