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Human Body Structure Essay

1548 words - 7 pages

Ćelija / cellula , ae , f / je najmanja strukturna i funkcionalna jedinica organizma , odvojena ćelijskom membranom od okoline.
PODELA
EUKARIOTE -čovek i PROKARIOTE-bakterije
GRAĐA
EUKARIOTE imaju : 1. MEMBRANU
2. NUKLEUS
3. CITOPLAZMU SA ORGANELAMA

ĆELIJSKE ORGANELE-Su potopljene u citoplazmu tj nukleoplazmu
MEMBRANSKE :Nukleus,Mitohondrije,Golđi aparat,Lizozomi, Peroksizomi , Endoplazmin retikulum
NEMEMBRANSKE :Ribozomi , Centriol ,Nukleolus ,Hromozomi

U citoplazmi mogu da se nalaze i inkluzije:glikogen,lipidi,pigmenti,kristali.
Pored ćelijskih organela / ...view middle of the document...

građa unutrašnjeg i spoljašnjeg sloja se razlikuje i imaju različite funkcije. Ugljeni hidrati se nalaze samo u spoljašnjem sloju i lumenskoj strani membrane membranskih organela. Različite ćelije takođe poseduju I različit sastav ćelijske membrane kao i različite ćelijske organele.

CITOPLAZMA
CITOPLAZMA – CITOSOL – HIJALOPLAZMA
pH - 7, 2 -
okružuje nukleus , providna je , tečna i bezstrukturna
supstanca u kojoj se nalaze : citoskelet, organele, inkluzije
U njoj su rastvoreni mnogi : enzimi , RNK , aminokiseline , joni i različiti metaboliti
Pored tečne komponente , postoji i fina mreža mikrotrabekula , proteinskih lanaca , koja povezuje različite komponente citoskeleta , koordiniše pokrete organela i reguliše neke metaboličke procese.
CENTRIOL
Cilindrična nemembranska organela
- Čini je 9 tripleta mikrotubula
- Raspored mikrotubula oblika zupčanika
- Svaki mikrotubul ima po tri subfibrile A, B i C
- Zid subfibrile A je kompletan a čine ga : 13 protofilamenata tubulina
- Zid subfibrile B i C je nekopletan , delimično ulazi u sastav susednog mikrotubula
- Sličan je po građi bazalnom telu cilije i flagele
- Tokom interfaze, ćelija ima par centriola koji su postavljeni pod pravim uglom
CENTROZOM- CITOCENTAR
Predstavlja specijalizovani region ćelije gde se nalazi centriol okružen elektronski gustom supstancom.Obično je postavljen uz jedro tj. centralno ali može zauzimati i periferan položaj.Oko centriola se nalazi pericentriolski materijal koji povezuje par centriola i γ – tubulin.Pericentriolski materijal sadrži proteine koji povezuju centrozom sa Golđi kompleksom.Tokom interfaze od njiega polaze mikrotubuli citoskeleta obrazujući mrežu koja utiče na oblik i polarizovanost ćelije.
Tokom ćelijskog ciklusa par centriola se udvostruči.U mitozi oni se razdvajaju i migriraju na suprotne polove ćelije formirajući deobno vreteno.
Centriol ne sadrži DNK ni RNK
Mikrotubuli centriola kao i mikrotubuli citoskeleta sadrže : monomere α - i - β tubulina a pericentriolski materijal sadrži : monomere γ - tubulina i neke druge proteine.

MITOHONDRIJE
Membranske organele , ovalnog oblika , dijametra 0,5 - 1 µm , često su asocirane za mikrotubule
Imaju dve membrane , intermembranozni prostor , matrix
UNUTRAŠNJA MEMBRANA sadrži veliku količinu fosfolipida kardiolipina , pa je nepermeabilna za jone
Bogata je proteinima koji obavljaju tri različite funkcije :
1. Obavljaju oksidativne reakcije i transport elektrona
2. ATP sintaza sintetiše ATP u matriksu
3. Transportni proteini omogućavaju prolaz metabolita u i iz matriksa
Sadrži elementarne partikule koje sadrže kompleks proteina sa aktivnošću ATP sintaze.Poseduje kriste koje povećavaju njenu površinu a postavljene...

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