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Hucksters In The Classroom Essay

602 words - 3 pages

الزلزال :

هو ظاهرة طبيعية عبارة عن اهتزاز أرضي سريع يعود إلى تكسر الصخور وإزاحتها بسبب تراكم إجهادات داخلية نتيجة لمؤثرات جيولوجية ينجم عنها تحرك الصفائح الأرضية. قد ينشأ الزلزال كنتيجة لأنشطة البراكين أو نتيجة لوجود انزلاقات في طبقات الأرض.
تؤدي الزلازل إلى تشقق الأرض ونضوب الينابيع أو ظهور الينابيع الجديدة أو حدوث أمواج عالية إذا ما حصلت تحت سطح البحر ( تسونامي )فضلا عن آثارها التخريبية للمباني والمواصلات والمنشآت وغالبا ينتج عن حركات الحمل الحراري في الأستينوسفير والتي تحرك الصفائح القارية متسببة في حدوث هزات هي الزلازل. كما أن الزلازل قد تحدث خرابا كبيراو تحدد درجة الزلزال بماشر وتقيسه من 1 إلى 10:من 1 إلى4 زلازل قد لا تحدث اية اضرار أي يمكن الاحساس به فقط،من4 إلى 6 زلازل متوسطة الاضرار قد تحدث ضررا للمنازل و الاقامات،اما الدرجة القصوى أي من 7الى10 فيستطيع الزلزال تدمير المدينة باكملها وحفرها تحت الأرض حتى تختفي مع اضرار لدى المدن المجاورة لها.

كيف تتكون الزلازل:

أثناء ...view middle of the document...

أضخم الزلازل عالميا:

زلزال لشبونة 1755 قتل فيه ما بين ال60 إلى 100 ألف نسمة و كان من أشد الزلازل تدميرا على مر التاريخ 
زلزال سان فرانسيسكو 1906 قتل فيه ما يقارب ال3 الآلاف شخص و بلغت خسائره حوالي 400 مليون دولار و كان من أشد الزلازل التي ضربت كاليفورنيا 
زلزال غوجرات غرب الهند 26 يناير 2001 
زلزال بم في إيران حيث قتل حوالي 40 الف شخص فيه 
زلزال المحيط الهندي 26 ديسمبر 2004 الذي أعقبه أشهر موجة تسونامي حيث ضربت سواحل العديد من الدول منها اندونيسيا، سريلانكا ، تايلاند ، الهند ، الصومال و غيرها حيث وصفت هذا الزلزال بأنه أحد أسوأ الكوارث الطبيعية التي ضربت الأرض على الإطلاق قتل فيه ما يقارب ال250000 
زلزال كشمير 2006 قتل فيه حوالي 79 ألف شخص 
زلزال الجزائر بومرداس 
زلزال الجزائر وهران 2008/06/06 5.5 
زلزال الجزائر ولاية الشلف التي كانت تسمى سابقا الأصنام في 10/10/1980 دمر الولاية بأكملها
زلزال الصين وكان اشد زلزال حيت دمرة مدينة باكملها 2008/03/05سنة

ماهو التصرف المناسب أثناء الزلزال:

إذا كنت في مبنى قف تحت مدخل الباب أو تحت طاولة متينة و بعيداً عن النافذة والزجاج 
في خارج المبنى قف بعيداً عن المباني والأشجار وخطوط الهاتف والكهرباء 
إذا كنت في مركبة ابتعد عن الأنفاق والجسور ولا تخرج من السيارة 
حاول ان تكون نفسيتك مرتاحة ولا تندهش

ماذا تفعل بعد الزلزال؟
ابحث عن المصابين وأسعفهم 
انتبه لأماكن تسرب الغاز والماء والمجاري 
افحص الأسلاك المقطوعة، وافصل التيار عن الأدوات المنزلية 
قيم الأضرار والمخاطر اللتي تتعلق بالسلامة 
نظف تسربات المواد الخطرة 
لا تمش حافي القدمين 
استمع للراديو المحلي لتتبع الإرشادات 
اقتصد في استعمال الهاتف

العدة الاحتياطية للزلازل:
راديو صغير مع بطاريات إضافية 
مصباح مع بطاريات إضافية 
حقيبة إسعافية وضمنها الأدوية الضرورية لأفراد الأسرة 
كتيب عن الإسعاف الأولي 
مطفأة حريق 
مفتاح إنكليزي قابل للتعديل لإصلاح تسربات الغاز والماء 
جهاز تحري الدخان 
سلم هروب متنقل 
زجاجات ماء كافية 
مؤنة أسبوع من أغذية معلبة ومجففة ويجب استعمالها واستبدالها كي لا تتلف فتحات الكبريت 
أرقام هواتف الشرطة والطوارئ الصحية والحريق 
مهارات ضرورية
كيفية الإطفاء وفصل الماء والغاز والكهرباء 
الإسعاف الأولي 
خطة لجمع العائلة في مكان واحد ويعرفها الجميع

اعداد الطالبة: الطاف الشمري

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