Britain, France and Soviet Union were great imperial powers, who all faced by the recurrent problems, nationalist movements among their people.1 World War One affected the political, economic, and social systems of Europe.2 The Treaty of Versailles had a very important influence on the Second World War, it was harsh, and economically impossible. In addition, it would be enough to upset the Germans, but not enough to restrain them powerless.3 There was another instability in Europe, the conflict within the eastern Europe; all of eastern Europe’s territories were changed, thus left many nations without a state of its own.4
There was continuity in German policy between the periods 1914 to ...view middle of the document...
8 For fascist, state is everything anything outside would be meaningless. So in this sense Fascism is totalitarian, it meant that state claimed to control the totality of life, and all activities of its citizens.9 Fascism also had great influences on its foreign policy, there were two phase under fascism. First, 1934-35 Italy acted as a normal and responsible state. Second, Italy acted in aggression – the invasion of Ethiopia, intervention in Spain, the occupation of Albanaia, and the declaration of war on France and Britain.10
Second, Nazi German, it focuses in the racial theories and social Darwinism; where one race dominates another. It appeared as both revolutionary and traditional, and was brought by the leader Hitler.11 There were two theories on the nature of Hitler’s authority; one, he wielded supreme power within the state, and made events in German as his own fulfilment. Two, policy was influenced by various structural constraints.12 Hitler’s book Mein Kampf listed what he wanted to do in the future. The main ideas were anti-Semitism, race and living space. The idea of race was tired up with the idea of living space. There were two choices – to secure new soil, or sell industrial products in foreign markets.13 In addition, German’s foreign policy was described as opportunism. Hitler’s main policy in central and Eastern Europe was to unit with Austria living space in the east, and subordination of the Slav peoples.14
Third, Parliamentary Democracy: France and Britain. France wanted peace because World War I killed 10.5% of its male population; with a low population they cannot afford to go to another war.15 Another issue was the disarmament of the League of Nation. The main goal of the League of Nation was to promote peace, but now it would be much more difficult for France wanting peace. France searched for allies in order to keep the peace, but it was difficult because of the different ideologies.16 Britain was less important in European affairs than France, and it was not a Continental power. Ideology had tremendously affected Britain’s foreign policy because there were several political conflicts. One of the major ideological problems was the Soviet Union, because the Labour Party included many admirers of the Soviet Union.17
Last, Soviet Communism Bolshevik Russia conceived itself in ideological term, brought under the leader Stalin. Stalinism was a regime of terror; however, it attracted powerful support outside its own frontiers.18 The existence of communist introduced permanent discord in Europe, an alliance with her would also be an alliance with communist. The simply communist interpretation of Nazism caused Stalin to under look the danger of Nazi Germany.19
Originally, Bell argued that the great depression played an important role in causing the war. First, it destroyed the confidence in Europe after 1925, and created its fierce economic nationalism and reduced world trade. Second, the social and political tension...