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History Of Community Health Essay

1416 words - 6 pages

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Once reliable tests for Rhesus grouping had been established, transfusion reactions became rare! For this discovery Landsteiner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930.   Karl Landsteiner The Components of Blood The circulatory system distributes about 4-6 liters of blood to the adult human body. The blood mainly has 2 portions: the Plasma and the Blood Cells. Plasma is mainly  composed of water, but contains different types of  proteins and other chemicals such as: enzymes, glucose, fat particles, salts ,hormones , antibodies etc. It constitutes about 60% of the blood. Blood cells can be observed under a microscope on staining.  The formation of blood cells occur in the bone marrow by the 'Hematopoietic stem cells'. They can be divided into 3 basic cell types: Erythrocytes (red Blood cells): As the name suggests, these red coloured cells give, blood its red colour. 1 ml of blood contains approximately 5 million RBCs! The proportion of blood occupied by red blood cells is referred to as the hematocrit, and is normally about 45%. Mature RBCs are biconcave in shape, lack a Nucleus and many other organelles. They circulate in the system for about 120 days, carrying out their job, i.e., to supply oxygen.This function is carried out by them most efficiently. since they are rich in an Iron-containing bio molecule called haemoglobin. Haemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen and thus binds to it and is transported from the alveoli (in lungs) to every parts of the body. There is constant replenishment of RBCs in order to remove  old cells that break down. (This process is carried out in organs like the Liver, also producing by-products like Bile pigments.) Millions of cels  are released into the bloodstream from the bone marrow each day. Leukocytes (white blood cells): These cells are key players in our immune system. They are of different types such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils; each of them with a variety of functions in our immunity. 1 ml of blood of an adult human contains about 4,000-11,000 leukocytes. Basically, they destroy and remove old or aberrant cells and clear cellular debris, as well as attack foreign substances and infectious agents (pathogenic entities). Thrombocytes (Platelets): The  coagulation or blood clotting process  is taken care of by them. The act on clotting proteins like Fibrinogen, converting it into Fibrin. They create a mesh onto which RBCs collect and thus forming a clot. Thus preventing excessive blood loss and also checks the entry of pathogens into the body. 1 ml of blood of an adult human contains about 200,000-500,000 platelets.  The observations that led to the discovery of blood groups: At times, it was observed that mixing blood from two individuals lef to blood clumping or agglutination. Later it was understood that the agglutinated red cells can clog blood vessels and stop the circulation of the blood to various parts of the body. The agglutinated red blood...

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