Theoretical Foundations of Practice
Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
The purpose of this paper is to explain the historical development of nursing science by presenting different theorists and their theories with explicit events and years in the history of nursing, and inform on the affinity between the profession and nursing science. This paper also includes the importance of nursing science of other disciplines such as psychology, anthropology, education, philosophy, religion and the social science.
The history of professional nursing starts with Florence Nightingale, who is considered the mother of nursing science. Nightingale placed emphasis on good ...view middle of the document...
As he suggests we first have to fulfill basic needs such as breathing and eating, before we can start focusing on other less necessary needs. For instance, a person will make sure he can provide food and shelter for himself (physiological needs) before he can focus on education achievements and respect from others (psychological needs).
Hildegard Peplau published the theory of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing in the early 1950s. Her theory states that the interpersonal relationship between the nurse and the client has four stages. These stages are orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution. Each of these stages is seen as being interrelated and requiring different functions as a nurse and the client learn to work together to resolve challenging situations in relation to health problems. Client and nurse develop a professional relationship and take in consideration values, culture, race, religion, and past experiences. (Gonzalo, 2011) From here we can discern that Peplau was influenced by the positive psychological effect that it would make on the client’s therapeutic treatment as the trust and bond grew stronger between client and nurse. Hence we can discern that this is a good model to counsel or treat people considering the positive psychological factor.
In 1965 at the University of Colorado, a physician and a nurse educator founded the establishment of the first- nurse practitioner role. ("Timeline of nursing history," 2014). Dorothy Johnson proposed The Behavioral Systems Model theory in the late 1960s, “Johnson stated that her theory is a product of philosophical ideas and that her work was inspired by Talcott Parsons and Rapoport, Chin, von Bertalanffy, and Buckley” (Sanchez, 2012, p. 10). All human behaviors were classified into eight subsystems. Each subsystem with a specific job, however, the person is seen as a whole by merit of the interdependence of each subsystem. ("Beha. Sys. Model," 2008). Each subsystem has to be protected, nurtured and stimulated; when Johnson originally proposed the theory she explained that it was to stimulate "the efficient and effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness” ("HBT," 2013, p. 1) Although Johnson was influenced by other philosophies, she was also influenced by the medicine science and psychology in her theory, as she makes use of basic physiological needs and human behavior in her subsystems model.
Trans-cultural nursing was founded from 1950s to 1970s. In 1974, Madeline Leininger she founded the Trans-cultural Nursing Society with annual trans-world conventions. ("CCP" ). Leiniger’s theory states that cultures have different care practices; the nurse must identify and address these factors in order to provide proper culturally and a wholistic care. (http://nursing.jbpub.com). Leininger places emphasis on the different cultural factors of the client such as beliefs, values, language, religion, social, political, educational. Culturally...