Aims and Objectives
On the completion of the seminar students gain the knowledge regarding hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and will utilize this knowledge with a positive attitude.
The group will able to;
* Define dialysis
* Describe the history of dialysis
* Explain the principles of dialysis
* Enumerate the indication of dialysis
* Explain details about hemodialysis
* Describe details about peritoneal dialysis
* List down the Psychosocial Issues In ESRD Patients
* Dietary Management Dialysis Patient
* Nursing Responsibilities
The introduction of dialysis as a lifesaving treatment for kidney failure was ...view middle of the document...
This help the living animals were dialysed in experimental conditions.
* In 1914 Hess & McGuigan were experimenting with dialysis in a pharmacology lab in Chicago. As a result they were able to transfer sugar from tissue to blood and from the blood across a collodion membrane.
* In 1920s the first dialysis performed on human was carried out by George Hass. He used hirudin as an anticoagulant and later a crude form of heparine. He was honoured as a pioneer of dialysis.
* In 1923 Heinrich Necheles was discovered contemporary dialyser.
* In mid 1930s purification of the heparin occur.
* In 1937 an American scientist, William Thalhimer use first synthetic membrane.
* In 1945 William Kolff first clinical experience was gained on a 29 year old women with chronic nephritis. The blood urea was kept stable for 26 days but after 12 sessions of dialysis her blood urea began to increase and she subsequently died.
* After the world war Kolff technique was wildly used.
* In 1950s Allis Chalmers Corporation was one of the first companies to produce dialysis machine commercially.
* In the late 1950s Fredrik Kiil of Norway made more modification in the field of dialyser.
* In 1960s the forerunner of today’s capillary – flow dialyser was produced by Richard Stewart.
* Belding Scribner was introduced the shunt to provide vascular access in dialysis.
* Followed by this invention hemodialysis started.
* In late 1970s and early 1980s the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as the first choice of home treatment.
* The innovations in the field of dialysis is reaching up to the satellite dialysing unit nowadays. And the patient surveillance rate also increase.
Principles of Dialysis
Solutes and water move across a semipermeable membrane from the blood to the dialysate or from the dialysate to the blood in accordance with concentration gradient. The principles of dialysis are diffusion, osmosis and ultra-filtration.
* Diffusion: Diffusion is the movement of solutes from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration. In Kidney failure cases urea, creatine, uric acids and electrolytes move from the blood to the dialysate with the net effect of lowering their concentration in the blood. RBC s WBC s and plasma proteins are too large to diffuse through the pores of the membrane. Hemodialysis patient are exposed to 120 to 130 L of water during each dialysis treatment. Small molecular weight substances can pass from the dialysate in to patient’s blood. So the purity of water used for dialysis is monitored and controlled.
* Osmosis: Osmosis is the movement of fluid from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration of solutes. Glucose is added to the dialysate and creates an osmotic gradient across the membrane, pulling excess fluid from the blood.