The Expanding Role of Nursing in Health Promotion
Robert W Lewis
Grand Canyon University NRS-429V
February 7, 2013
Nursing in the 21st century is being redefined. The population of the United States is increasingly diverse, with many cultural and religious influences on the health of the population. Legislative initiatives like the affordable health care act (AHC) will require a shift from the wellness-illness model to a practice focused on health promotion. When discussing a definition of health promotion published literature over the last 30 years has expanded and refined this role. One definition that is comprehensive is:
Health Promotion is the art and science of helping people ...view middle of the document...
Finally, having pulled the last person out of the water, you decide to look up stream to see why there are people in the water in the first place. You discover there is a large hole in the bridge spanning the river. You repair the hole, and there are no more people falling into the water (At Work, 2006). These are two examples of definitions of health promotion, providing a framework for the application of the concept.
Leavell and Clark (1965) provide a framework describe a three-tiered model of prevention and therefore promotion of health. The first component of the triad is primary prevention, emphasizing the nurse’s role as teacher and coach; the emphasis would be on promoting positive health behaviors in the community and globally. These behaviors would be immunizations, adequate food and water supplies, avoidance of high risk behaviors (unprotected sex, smoking, drug use,) adequate sanitation, and, preventative medical care, including routine gynecological and other health screenings.
Secondary prevention is described by interventions to cure and prevent the disease process, prevent complications and shorten any period of disability.
Tertiary prevention focuses on the rehabilitative process and its role in limiting the ongoing results of existing disease processes. This could include education to maximize remaining functional status, promotion of sheltered work environments to provide for continued community involvement and educating the community as to the abilities of these individuals.
The continuing evolution of nursing in the 21st century will by necessity shift from an acute care setting to a community-based setting. Community centers, home health agencies, housing developments, local and state health departments; neighborhood centers and parishes school health programs and worksites will be some of the venues in which nurses will practice primary health promotion (Kulbok, et al., 2012). The secondary level of health promotion is illustrated by the role of nursing prevention and treatment of hypertension on a global scale. High blood pressure affects between 600 and 800 million people worldwide, and the causes of over 7 million premature deaths. Evidence provided by Hong (2010) concluded...