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Health Care Level 3 Unit 7 P1

3473 words - 14 pages

Contents:

Functionalism……………………………………………………………Pg.3
Marxism………………………………………………………………….Pg.4
Feminism………………………………………………………………...Pg.5
Interactionism…………………………………………………………...Pg.6
Collectivism……………………………………………………………...Pg.7
Post-Modernism………………………………………………………...Pg.8
New Right………………………………………………………………..Pg.9
You (Me)…………………………………………………………………Pg.10

Functionalism
According to the functionalist perspective of sociology, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society’s stability and functioning as a whole. For example, the government provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. That is, the ...view middle of the document...

Instead, functionalism sees active social change as undesirable because the various parts of the society will compensate naturally for any problems that may arise. The functionalist perspective, also known as functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable. Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each party of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. The different parts are primarily the institutions of society, each of which is organised to fill different needs and each of which has a particular consequence for the form and shape of society. The parts all depend on one another. Functionalism emphasizes the consensus and order that exist in society, focusing on social stability and shared public values. From this perspective, disorganisation in the system, such as deviant behaviour, leads to change because societal components must adjust to achieve stability. When one part of the system is not working or is dysfunctional, it affects all other parts and creates social problems, which leads to social change. The functionalist perspective achieved its greatest popularity among American sociologists in the 1940’s and 50’s. While European functionalists originally focused on explaining inner workings of social order, American functionalists focused on discovering the functions of human behaviour. An American functionalist sociologist called Robert K. Merton, who divided human functions into two types: manifest functions, which are intentional and obvious and latent functions, which are unintentional and not obvious. The manifest function of attending a church for instance is to worship as part of a religious community, but its latent function may be to help members learn to discern personal from institutional values. Functionalism has been critiqued by many sociologists for its neglect of the often negative implications of social order. Some critics, like Italian theorist Antonio Gramsci, claim that the perspective justifies the status quo, and the process of cultural hegemony which maintains it. Functionalism does not encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment, even when such change may benefit them. Instead, functionalism sees active social change as undesirable because the various parts of society will compensate in a seemingly natural way for any problems that may arise

Marxism
Karl Marx focused on the transformation of society, believing society’s socioeconomic foundations are based on culture and politics. Marxism describes the inequality of the relationships between social classes and the organisation of the capitalist society. The inequalities of access to resources are also...

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