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Haha Essay

845 words - 4 pages

CHAPTER 1a: BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS

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CONTENTS
 Thermodynamics and Energy  Dimensions and Units  Systems and Properties  State, Processes and Cycles  Temperature  Pressure and Measuring Devices  Problem Solving Technique
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LESSON OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Identify application of thermodynamics

Define & differentiate between closed system and control volume (open system)
Differentiate between intensive and extensive properties

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What Is Thermodynamics?
Greek Words
Therme (heat) Dynamis (Power)

It is a science of energy.

Early description: Convert heat into power. Current Definition: The study of ...view middle of the document...

 Others: viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and etc
Intensive Properties
independent of the size/ extent (or mass) dependent on the size/ extent (related to mass) T, P, age, colour

Extensive

m, V, total E

 Specific properties  E.g. specific volume

extensive properties per unit mass

V m 10

DENSITY & SPECIFIC GRAVITY
 Density (kg/m3) depends on T & P
m V

 Specific gravity or relative density (ratio of the density of
a substance to the density of some standard substance at a specified temperature e.g. water)
SG
s H 2O

 Specific weight – is the weight of a unit volume of a
substance

s

g
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STATE & EQUILIBRIUM
State
A set of properties that describe the condition of a system at certain time  At a given state, all the properties of a system have fixed values.  If the value of one property changes, the state will change to a different one.  If the state changes, the system is said to have undergone a process

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STATE & EQUILIBRIUM
Equilibrium
 A state of balance.  In an equilibrium state, there are no
unbalanced potentials (or driving forces) within the system.
Thermal equilibrium: If the temperature is the same throughout the entire system. Mechanical equilibrium: If there is no
change in pressure at any point of the system with time. Phase equilibrium: If a system involves two phases and when the mass of each phase reaches an equilibrium level and stays there. Chemical equilibrium: If the chemical composition of a system does not change with time, that is, no chemical reactions occur.

A closed system reaching thermal equilibrium.
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PROCESSES & CYCLES
PROCESS A transformation from one state to another

If a system exhibits the same values of...

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