CHAPTER 18. GREAT LEADERS: STYLES, ACTIVITIES, AND SKILLS
I. PURPOSE AND TEACHING OBJECTIVES
To present various findings on the styles of leadership and how they contribute to leader effectiveness; to relate implications from classic studies and modern theories of leadership; to discuss the research findings on leadership roles and activities, especially as they relate to successful and effective leaders; and to identify and analyze the skills needed for effective leadership of today’s organizations.
II. TEACHING NOTES AND REVIEW OUTLINE
A. Leadership roles are changing in today’s dynamic, global environment.
1. Experts state that five key leadership roles ...view middle of the document...
4. Fiedler's contingency theory identifies human relations and task-directed styles and the path-goal approach to leadership depends on directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented styles.
5. The charismatic and transformational leadership approaches point to the importance of inspirational style.
6. As an alternative to the stereotyped self-heralding heroic style, a recent observation asserts that effective leaders are “quiet” and low profile, act with “modesty and restraint” and act “patiently, carefully and incrementally.
C. Classic Style. Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid identifies five leadership styles according to two dimensions: “concern for task” and “concern for people”.
1. The “impoverished” style (1,1 manager) shows minimum concern for people and production.
2. The most effective style (9,9 manager) is highly concerned with both people and production.
3. The “middle-of-the-roader” is the 5,5 manager.
4. The “country club” style (1,9 manager) is very concerned about people and minimally concerned about production.
5. The “task” style (9,1 manager) is very concerned about production and minimally concerned about people.
D. Life-Cycle or Situational Approach. Hersey and Blanchard’s life-cycle or situational approach to leadership styles applies Fiedler’s contingency concept. The model suggests there are two major styles (task and relationship) and a leader's style should be varied according to the level of maturity exhibited by subordinates.
1. Task style: organizing and defining subordinate roles; explaining tasks in terms of when, where, and how subordinates should do them.
2. Relationship style: open communication and psychological and emotional support in leader’s personal relationships with subordinates.
3. Subordinate maturity is defined by degree of achievement motivation, willingness to take on responsibility, amount of education/experience.
4. Four basic leader styles in this approach are:
telling (high-task/low relationship)
delegating (low task/low-relationship)
5. Although the situational and grid approaches point out the importance of leader flexibility, they have not been empirically supported and have been criticized for their narrow descriptions of the situation.
6. House and Podsakoff summarized the behaviors and approaches of great leaders that they drew from more modern theories and research are:
b. Passion and self-sacrifice
c. Confidence, determination, and persistence
d. Image building
e. Role modeling
f. External representation
g. Expectations of confidence in followers