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Grammar Essay

1479 words - 6 pages

FUTURE TENSE

In Dutch, the future tense is expressed by using the construction gaan (to go) + infinitive for actions which will take place in the near (or immediate) future, and zullen (to shall, will) + infinitive for actions which will take place in the not so near future or when the time of the future action is unknown. In such constructions, the verbs gaan and zullen are used in the simple present tense. The conjugations for the two irregular verbs are shown below.
|

gaan (to go) | zullen (shall, will) |
| |
Dutch | | English |
Ik ga. | | I am going. |
Jij/U gaat. | | You are going. |
Hij/Zij/Het gaat. | | He/She/It is going. |
Wij gaan. | | We are going. |
Jullie ...view middle of the document...

Take a look at the following rules:
|

 -te is added in singular to all stems ending in t, k, f, s, c, h, or p.  -ten is added in plural to all stems ending in t, k, f, s, c, h, or p.  -de is added in singular in all other cases.  -den is added in plural in all other cases. |
For example:
 maken (to make): ik maakte, wij maakten.  zetten (to put): jij zette, jullie zetten.  openen (to open): zij opende, wij openden.  sluiten (to close): hij sluitte, zij sluitten. |

All Dutch verbs consist of a stem and an ending. All regular verbs usually end in -en, such as maken (=to make), reizen (=to travel), or praten (=to talk). In order to obtain the stem of the verb, two steps have to be undertaken:
First, the ending -en has to be removed. Second, the stem has to be modified in such a way, that the pronunciation remains the same as before the ending had been removed.
If there is a long vowel (a, e, o, u) at the end of the stem, it has to be doubled. For example:
|

 maken (to make) - maak (make) praten (to talk) - praat (talk) koken (to cook) - kook (cook) |
If the stem ends in a double consonant, then one has to be removed. For example:
 knikken (to nodd) - knik (nodd) liggen (to lie) - lig (lie) zitten (to sit) - zit (sit) |
In addition to the rules above, a v at the end of a stem is changed to f, and an z is changed to s. For example:
 geven (to give) - geef (give) blazen (to blow) - blaas (blow) |
PRESENT TENSE

In the present tense, verbs are usually formed according to the following scheme:
Person | | Construction |
ik (I) | | Stem |
jij, u (you, singular) | | stem + t |
hij, zij, het (he, she, it) | | stem + t |
wij (we) | | Infinitive |
jullie (you, plural) | | Infinitive |
zij (they) | | Infinitive |
Special attention should be paid to the following: when a stem ends in -t, then in the second and third person singular no t is attached to the stem. Finally, in the exercise below you can practice the conjunction by filling in the right form of each verb.
 maken (to make): ik ..., jij ..., hij ..., wij ..., jullie maken, zij ...
 slapen (to sleep): ik ..., jij ..., hij slaapt, wij ..., jullie ..., zij ...
 eten (to eat): ik eet, jij ..., zij ..., wij ..., jullie ..., zij ...
 drinken (to drink): ik ..., u ..., het ..., wij drinken, jullie ..., zij ...
 zetten (to put): ik ..., u ..., zij ..., wij ..., jullie ..., zij zetten.

All Dutch verbs consist of a stem and an ending. All regular verbs usually end in -en, such as maken (=to make), reizen (=to travel), or praten (=to talk). In order to obtain the stem of the verb, two steps have to be undertaken:
First, the ending -en has to be removed. Second, the stem has to be modified in such a way, that the pronunciation remains the same as before the ending had been removed.
If there is a long vowel (a, e, o, u) at the end of the stem, it has to be doubled. For example:
|

 maken (to make) - maak (make) praten (to...

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