Ghjgkhjgjghjg Essay

1446 words - 6 pages

It would be difficult to disagree that for one of the smaller representing populations in Australia, Indigenous Australians are at disadvantage in many areas. Areas ranging from employment, housing, justice and education among many more. There have been innumerable efforts at overcoming the disadvantages Aboriginal people have to face. For the purposes of this Essay, literature will be discussed in addressing the social inequality and disadvantage of indigenous people in relation to refining the gap in life expectancy (as a social-economic indicator) and what essential elements need to be considered for the process to work successfully.
There are contending ideas in relevant literature as ...view middle of the document...

Health policy must tackle the social and economical determinants of health’ (p.10). McMurray and Param (2008) re-address the primary health care aspect and bring in the notion that cultural specific guidelines within health structures are the key to improving Aboriginal health. This however ignores the historical issues between Indigenous and non-indigenous relations that affect the life expectancy gap as ‘the situation for indigenous Australians is further exacerbated by racism and prejudice, which have marginalised them from various aspects of social and community life, with additional detrimental effects on health’ (Eades 2000, p.469) and in effect the fear among Aboriginal people of institutional racism (Sweet 2003).
Experiences of loss of traditional roles, a history of conflict and dispossession, failed assimilation and passive welfare are not isolated to indigenous Australians but have been experienced by indigenous peoples of other countries who have been colonised (Banks 2007). The statistics show however that indigenous Australians life expectancy compared to that of non- indigenous Australians to be considerably lower , with men 11.5yrs difference women 9.7 yrs (Australian Bureau of statistics, 2010) were as ‘the longevity gap between Māori and non-Māori has closed slightly. The difference in life expectancy at birth of 8.2 years in 2005–07 compares with 8.5 years in 2000–02 and 9.1 years in 1995–97’ (statistics New Zealand 2008). Centres for Disease Control and Preventions (2010) also show the life expectancy gap in the U.S for Black or African American People to be somewhat lower than Australia’s and has been also closing slightly as at 1995 the gap was 7 years for both sexes and at 2005 has been reduced to 5.1 years.
As it has been established that health can be a reflection social determinant, it would be fair to say that the social status and relations of international indigenous people are further along than Australia. Canada, New Zealand and The United States all have specifically designed treaties of political, legal and cultural significance which were designed in consultation with the Indigenous peoples that have established indigenous and non-indigenous relations with ‘governments using treaties and treaty-making as part of a wider approach to developing a better relationship with and addressing the socio-economic problems of indigenous peoples’ (Brennan et al. 2005, p.99).
In Australia there are no such treaties and often the commonwealth and state governments have a different belief in how the gap in life expectancy can be overcome to that of many indigenous Australians. This can be seen through the use of policies relating to indigenous affairs. A health impact assessment of the current governments Northern territory Emergency Response (NTER) points out that the Aboriginal understanding of health as having five dimensions ‘cultural, spiritual, social, emotional and physical-within which are a number of layers that...

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