Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs
Many people suffer from some form of a psychiatric disorder, which affects a person’s ability to behave in way that is deemed normal by society. Several mental disorders have extreme effects on the mental health of those who suffer from them. It is estimated that as much of 3.3 percent of the U.S. population is found in a thirty day period to suffer from extreme psychological distress (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Schizophrenia, depression, mania, anxiety disorder, and Tourette syndrome are the top five psychiatric disorders, and the effects of each on a person’s mental health range from mild to severe.
Schizophrenia is a ...view middle of the document...
P.J. 2009 p.458). This led experts to link the increase of dopamine to schizophrenia disorder.
While schizophrenia symptoms are quite disturbing, it does not help that this disorder has been closely linked to other disorders as well. Depression and mania are bipolar disorders or affective disorders that sometimes share similar symptoms with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, this disorder may go un-noticed for a while since depression is something everyone may experience during some point in life. On the other hand depression becomes clinical when it persists for a long period of time or reoccurs often. In such case the person may not understand what the reason behind the sudden shift in mood and may find it hard to regain a peace of mind.
Symptoms of depression are sadness, anxious, pessimistic, low energy, changes in thoughts/activities, and sleeping as well as eating habits. These symptoms are experienced consistently, and may follow episodes of mania. Mania symptoms are opposite of depression where the person may experience extreme happiness, inflated self-esteem, racing thoughts, and talkativeness. Mania and depression are usually interchangeable, and most known as bipolar disorder because the up and down of moods. However, those who suffer from either depression or mania are described as unipolar. Both are treated with one of the four major classes of drugs antidepressant drugs: monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, and monoamine reuptake inhibitors (Pinel, J.P.J. 2009. p. 463).
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (iproniazid) were the first drug that was developed that was found beneficial to treat affective disorders; however this discovery was made as the drug initial use was to treat tuberculosis. It was not effective for its original purpose, but experts observed the calming effect it produced for depressed individuals. This drug also has a severe side effect when taken with foods that contains tyramine. Alone tyramine is not harmful but when digested with MAO it rapid high blood pressure, which can cause a stroke (Pinel, J.P.J. 2009. p. 463)
Tricyclic antidepressants consist of three rings of atom, and these are more preferable than MAO. Ironically, imipramine which was the first of this drug was administered to treat schizophrenia. Lithium is used to treat mania and is considered a mood stabilizer because it prevents the ups and downs of depression/mania. The fourth drug is fairly new compare to the others and it consists of several brands of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Prozac is one of the most popular brands and is widely accepted in the medical community for the treatment of depression.
The next category of psychiatric disorders is anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are more complex than the other three disorders mention...