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Frugal E Reverse Innovation Essay

6995 words - 28 pages

L’internazionalizzazione della Funzione Ricerca e Sviluppo

Indice

1 - Introduzione 3

2 - L'Internazionalizzazione dell’unità R&S 5

2.1 - I Motivi dell’Internazionalizzazione 5

2.2 - Evoluzione delle Forme di Internazionalizzazione 6

2.3 - Strategie Tecnologiche su Scala Internazionale 9

3 - Dalla Globalizzazione alla Reverse Innovation 12

3.1 - Frugal Innovation 14

3.2 - Reverse Innovation 17

3.3 - Perché fare Reverse Innovation 19

3.4 - Il caso: “The 300$ House” 20

1 - Introduzione

Con il ...view middle of the document...

Il possesso di know-how, di competenze e di risorse strategiche non è sufficiente a garantire all’impresa il mantenimento di un certo vantaggio competitivo. Questo è determinato fortemente anche dalla capacità dell’azienda di seguire un approccio evolutivo che impone di adattare le proprie operazioni e risorse agli stimoli provenienti dai mercati locali.
L’internalizzazione delle aziende da una parte si basa sulla capacità di queste ultime di globalizzare il proprio bagaglio di risorse e conoscenze per sfruttarlo a livello mondiale , dall’altro di riuscire ad allineare il proprio prodotto e le proprie tecnologie alle reali necessità dei diversi paesi.
Il trasferimento all’estero di attività economiche è un fenomeno che interessa molto anche il nostro paese dove, da una pubblicazione dell’ISTAT, emerge che: un’ impresa su 10 con almeno 50 addetti ha trasferito all’estero attività o funzioni precedentemente realizzate in Italia, il 7,3% ha sviluppato all’estero nuove attività, mentre il 3,8% ha realizzato entrambe le azioni.[1]
L’internazionalizzazione ha interessato maggiormente le imprese industriali rispetto a quelle operanti nel settore dei servizi e le funzioni più interessate da questo fenomeno vanno dal marketing alle vendite, ai servizi post-vendita fino alla distribuzione, alla logistica, ai servizi amministrativi, contabili e gestionali. La riduzione del costo del lavoro è uno dei fattori che più incidono sulla scelta di trasferire all’estero attività o funzioni aziendali, ma come vedremo successivamente non è di certo l’unico.
Nel percorrere un cammino di innovazione sul mercato internazionale le aziende, in particolare quelle high-tech, necessitano di bilanciare attività di Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&S) tra l’implementazione di tecnologie e soluzioni globali e l’adattamento di queste a esigenze di mercati specifici. Negli ultimi anni la capacità innovativa delle imprese appare provenire da caratteri e fonti decisamente diversi rispetto al passato, a causa del profondo mutamento che ha investito le dinamiche evolutive legate ai paradigmi tecnologici. Queste infatti non dipendono solamente dall'impulso derivante dall’investimento in R&S ma, oggi più che in passato, sono fortemente dipendenti dal contributo apportato da comunità tecnologiche disperse nel mondo, che hanno sostituito la logica della protezione del know-how tecnologico con quella del suo sviluppo continuo. La partecipazione ad un sistema di ricerca, locale o globale, consente all'impresa di accrescere in maniera significativa il suo potenziale di sviluppo tecnologico poiché, avvalendosi di processi di apprendimento collettivo in una rete locale e in misura maggiore di apprendimento relazionale in una rete allargata [Lipparini e Lorenzoni 1996], è in grado di accedere a bacini di competenze esterne. La possibilità di accedere a competenze localizzate in una specifica area permette di aumentare considerevolmente la capacità innovativa e quella di sfruttamento dell'innovazione...

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