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Flood' Causes And Cotrol Essay

993 words - 4 pages

WHAT IS FLOOD?
CAUSES OF FLOOD AND CONTROL

According to Merrian-Websters Dictionary, Flood is a rising and overflowing of a body of water especially onto normally dry land. It could also be defined as condition of overflowing rivers or water, especially over land not usually submerged. In other words flood is said to have occurred when there is excess water surpassing the limits of it confines.

In Ghana flood is one of the most devastating natural disasters which impact negatively on the life and properties of people. For example property worth 265,186,423 million cedis was destroyed according to government authorities.

Nationwide NADMO indicates that 19,755 people are affected of ...view middle of the document...

This is because of the high nature of the tides and storms. The sea level therefore increases when it rains. If the sea level gets higher than the level of the coastal lowland, flooding will occur.

THE HUMAN CAUSES OF FLOOD
1) Deforestation.
When large areas of forest have been cleared and the lands used for settlement, roads and farmlands, less vegetation tend to protect the soil. The soil is quickly lost to rivers, rains and the sea. This raises the river bed, so the river overflows its bank easily leading to flooding. Deforested areas will have no trees to soak up water, so more water flows over; the area may have no trees to bind the soil together, so erosion takes place. Large amount of soil are therefore washed away leading to flooding anytime it rains.

2) Poor farming.
Some farming practices can damage the vegetation cover, so the soil will be washed away easily anytime it rains. Once the soil can easily be washed away, the likelihood of floods occurring is very high.
 Overgrazing
Too many animals are grazed on on the land as a result the pasture is eaten away quickly. The vegetation cover is therefore affected making the soil bare and vulnerable to flooding when it rains.
 Over-cultivation
When a piece of land has been used for farming for a long period of time, the soil may become infertile that no vegetation can grow on it. The land less fertile than before and so washed easily is creating room for flooding.

3) Poor drainage system
Most cities in Ghana are either without proper drainage system or these drainages are chocked by debris or waste materials not giving enough room for free flow of running water until such a time that the water displaces itself on to the land leading to flooding.
4) Population pressure

Great number of people living in a place causes pressure to be exerted on the limited resources such as the land. The land is over utilised for food and buildings. When this happens, soil erosion occurs increasing the risk of flooding in...

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