Evaluation Of The Antibacterial Activity Of Phytochemicals Of Bacteria

2390 words - 10 pages

1.0 Introduction
The project seeks to extract phytochemicals from Crombetum molle and evaluate their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus specie. Indigenous plants possess the ability to produce phytochemicals which they use to protect themselves against insect infection and environmental harsh conditions. Currently, the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance is the greatest challenge on the treatment of bacterial infection in Zimbabwe (Weinstein R.A, 1998). In Zimbabwe vanocomycim, meropenem, imipenem are antibiotics which are being used against methicillin resistant S.aureus specie and are considered very expensive because they are not manufactured in ...view middle of the document...

1.2 Justification

In Zimbabwe there is no production of conventional drugs and the start material of manufacturing antibiotics is costly, so there is need to use phytochemicals from plants as antibacterial agents since the source material is readily available compared to that of conventional drugs. The phytochemicals do not cause undesirable toxic effects and can be used in rotation with conventional drugs.

2.0 Goal
To determine and obtain the antibacterial activity of phytochemicals in Crombretum molle (mupembere) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus specie
2.1 Objectives
* To determine the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus specie
* To identify the phytochemicals present in Combretum molle

2.2 Literature view

Infectious diseases are transmissible diseases that comprise clinically evident illnesses which result from infection of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. Infectious diseases represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 26% of all death with developing countries carrying the major burden. Pathogenic biological agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and multicellular parasites that have the ability to interact with human being by creating a community and cause an infection which reflected in possession of certain pathogenic factors. Nosocomial infection is known to be a major cause of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. (Weinstein R.A,1998). According to the World Health Report, 1.8 million childhood death annually due to acute diarrheal illness which is also a very common illness in developed countries. Antimicrobial agents or antibiotics are used to prevent, control and reduce the occurrence of the infection. Antibiotics are semi-synthetic or synthetic substances produced by the natural metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganism.( Vroumsia T et al,2009), The greatest number of antibiotics is derived from bacteria from the genera Streptomyces and Bacillus and molds from genera Penicillium and Cephalosporium whereas only 7% of antimicrobial metabolites are plant-derived compounds (Weinstein R.A,1998) . Currently, the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance is the greatest challenge on the treatment of bacterial infection.

Plants are found to be an enormous source for variety of bioactive compounds with diverse molecular structure and function. These molecules are primarily derived from the secondary metabolism of plants and are used to protect it against predation by microorganisms, insects and herbivorous (Todar, K et al. 2002) Phytochemicals have two categories primary and secondary constituents. Primary constituents have chlorophyll, proteins sugar and amino acids. Secondary constituents contain terpenoids and alkaloids (Wadood A et al, 2013). Phytochemicals are naturally occurring...

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