Etica Essay

2767 words - 12 pages

ÈTICA 1R EXAMEN

LIBRO 1: títols dels textos que hi ha: LA POLÍTICA Y LA ÉTICA SON LAS CIENCIAS DE LO BUENO Y LO MEJOR; ACERCA DE LA FELICIDAD COMO FIN EN SÍ MISMO; ACERCA DE LA NATURALEZA DE LA FELICIDAD Y LA FUNCIÓN ESPECÍFICA DEL HOMBRE; ACERCA DE LA VIRTUD Y LAS PARTES DEL ALMA
1. Define qué es la ética
La ética de Aristóteles, es, en primer lugar, una ética de la felicidad... pero también es una ética de la virtud ya que ésta es el medio por excelencia para alcanzar la felicidad. Para él, ethos, significa temperamento, carácter, hábito, modo de ser.

Se define la ética como la ciencia que se refiere al estudio filosófico de la acción y la conducta humana, todo lo que hacemos lo ...view middle of the document...

El rigor de la ética no consiste en lo mismo que el rigor de las matemáticas. El método de la ética no puede ser el mismo que el de las ciencias empíricas, porque su objeto tampoco lo es.

42.¿Qué significa la vida teorética o contemplativa para Aristóteles? ¿por qué es tan importante?
 Es la vida eminentemente intelectual: se busca el placer de saber, se cultiva el conocimiento, se da importancia a juzgar bien de la vida, del mundo, la sociedad y de uno mismo. Lo que se busca por encima de todo es el bien y la verdad. Las preferencias y valores de la vida teorética son más elevados.

3.¿Por qué la felicidad se identifica con la virtud? (2 puntos)
Como Platón y Sócrates, Aristóteles sostiene que la virtud nos ayuda a buscar la felicidad y esa es la base de la ética. La virtud misma es la felicidad: por la perfección que supone en las personas; y no es un premio a la virtud sino su resultado necesario e inmediato. Haciendo lo bueno me hago bueno y me hago feliz.
La felicidad es la propia excelencia, el desarrollo de cada sujeto según lo mejor que él puede llegar a ser.
Pues, en efecto, para Aristóteles, es mediante el ejercicio firme y continuado de la virtud (de la virtud o la excelencia que le es propia) como el ser humano alcanza la felicidad plena y perfecta.

5.¿Por qué afirma Aristóteles que la felicidad es el fin último del ser humano? Argumentar (2 puntos)
6. ¿Qué significa que la felicidad es la función propia del hombre? Expón el argumento aristotélico (2 Puntos)
Aquí está la clave de lectura de la ética de Aristóteles: la finalidad del acto humano. Todo acto tiene un fin, que es la felicidad.

La función que las personas tienen como algo exclusivo y propio es el entendimiento, de la parte intelectiva del alma, aquella por la que el hombre tiene la capacidad de trascender su sensibilidad y realizar actos de conocimiento y de amor que traspasan el ámbito de lo sensible y corpóreo.
Esta región intelectiva del alma es propia del ser humano.

7. ¿Qué significa que el fin último es objetivo y subjetivo? (2 puntos)
Cabe distinguir dos clases de fin último: uno subjetivo, que consiste en la felicidad en general; y otro objetivo, que consiste en el bien concreto en cuya posesión el hombre encontrará la verdadera felicidad. Por eso decimos que la felicidad tiene una parte objetiva que es su dependencia del bien; y una parte subjetiva, que es el reconocimiento que cada uno hace de ella.
4.¿Por qué el fin último es necesario?
Porque no habría ni fines, ni bienes, en absoluto. Si cada acción tiene su verdadero motivo fuera de sí misma, si cada razón de mi actuación tiene su verdadera causa en otra cosa, tiene que haber algo querido y buscado por sí mismo, un fin de la búsqueda, una justificación de la cadena de fines que se va formando.
El no tener un bien final que se llama felicidad negaría la naturaleza, llevando al absurdo.
11. Distingue brevemente el nivel sensible y el nivel intelectivo de la persona humana.
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