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1619 words - 7 pages

Module 3: Operating-System Structures

System Components

Operating System Services

System Calls

System Programs

System Structure

Virtual Machines

System Design and Implementation

System Generation

Common System Components

Process Management

Main Memory Management

Secondary-Storage Management

I/O System Management

File Management

Protection System


Command-Interpreter System

Process Management

A process is a program in execution. A process needs certain resources, including CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices, to accomplish its task.

The operating system is ...view middle of the document...

The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with disk management:

Free space management

Storage allocation

Disk scheduling

I/O System Management

The I/O system consists of:

A buffer-caching system

A general device-driver interface

Drivers for specific hardware devices

File Management

A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator. Commonly, files represent programs (both source and object forms) and data.

The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connections with file management:

File creation and deletion.

Directory creation and deletion.

Support of primitives for manipulating files and directories.

Mapping files onto secondary storage.

File backup on stable (nonvolatile) storage media.

Protection System

Protection refers to a mechanism for controlling access by programs, processes, or users to both system and user resources.

The protection mechanism must:

distinguish between authorized and unauthorized usage.

specify the controls to be imposed. //定義法律

provide a means of enforcement. //執行法律

Networking (Distributed Systems)

A distributed system is a collection processors that do not share memory or a clock. Each processor has its own local memory.

The processors in the system are connected through a communication network.

A distributed system provides user access to various system resources.

Access to a shared resource allows:

Computation speed-up

Increased data availability

Enhanced reliability

Command-Interpreter System

Many commands are given to the operating system by control statements which deal with:

process creation and management

I/O handling

secondary-storage management

main-memory management

file-system access



Command-Interpreter System (Cont.)

The program that reads and interprets control statements is called variously:

control-card interpreter

command-line interpreter

shell (in UNIX)

Its function is to get and execute the next command statement.

Operating System Services

Program execution – system capability to load a program into memory and to run it.

I/O operations – since user programs cannot execute I/O operations directly, the operating system must provide some means to perform I/O.

File-system manipulation – program capability to read, write, create, and delete files.

Communications – exchange of information between processes executing either on the same computer or on different systems tied together by a network. Implemented via shared memory or message passing.

Error detection – ensure correct computing by detecting errors in the CPU and...

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