Chapter 3: Language and Communication
2. Words have Multiple Meanings---in two ways we can distinguish
A. Denotative---a Literal meaning of a word that can be found in the dictionary.
B Connotative---Subjective meaning of a word based on our attitudes and experiences.
3.Thought Informs Language---how does it do this? By a theory called cognitive language
A specific system of symbols that we use to describe people, things abd situations in our mind.
It is related to your thoughts, attitudes, co-culture and the society in which you live.
4. Language is Ruled by Grammar---
2 Types of Rules:
SYNTACTIC---These are rules that govern where words come in a ...view middle of the document...
Example----would you jump up laughing or screaming while a church service is in progress?
Would you tell someone you want to see others or take a break from the relationship on an amusement park ride?
5 FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
1. Means of Control----language is an instrument of control and influence over others and self. How?
Example---using the word please or I didn’t mean it or I won’t do it again or I’m sorry.
2. To Share Information---2 way street giving and receiving---4 aspects to informing
• Questioning---Children ask a lot of questions…who else does this?
• Describing----The details of a story or experience….a sunset or an ocean cliff
• Reinforcing---repeating or paraphrasing the information to make sure we understand completely
• Withholding---Knowing when to reveal or withhold information is a sign of maturity and good choices in communicating.
3. Disclaimers---- Discount what you are about to say and often used to head off confrontation or to avoid embarrassment
Example---it’s probably nothing, I thought I heard her say, I’m probably imagining things.
4. Tag Questions---A sign of uncertainty or hesitation associated with women’s speech
Example----wasn’t that a nice restaurant we dined at? Wasn’t that a wonderful concert?
And then the tag questions can be more aggressive---
Example you aren’t going to stay out late again tonight are you? you are going to be here for the party tonight aren’t you?
1 Sapir-Whorf hypothesis---- A claim that the words a culture uses or doesn’t use influences thinking---so if unaware of new terms then kinda disregard it as important.