Essay On Human Beahavior

1519 words - 7 pages

When one person starts to compare the behavior of his generation to the next we might say that he is already growing old. Why? Because of the fact that there is a distinction of one’s generation to the next. The distinguishing characteristic may be better or worse, but as can be observed today adolescents have gone into a track which is in a less favorable demeanor. Thanks to Burrhus Frederic Skinner, popularly known as B.F. Skinner for obvious reason, the master of in human behavior, a teacher as well as parents can now have an idea as to the know how’s in shaping human behavior. Shaping human behavior means leading a certain individual towards performing repeatedly a certain conduct ...view middle of the document...

Aside from the reward itself both theories also takes into consideration the increasing of a desired behavior. Whereas for punishment and extinction it tends to decrease the probability of the behavior occurring in the future. To further understand the methods it a necessity to examine it single handedly.

Positive reinforcement- A positive reinforcement are responses from the environment that increases the probability of a behavior being repeated. Skinner showed how positive reinforcement works by placing a rat in his Skinners box. The box contains a lever that when pushed a food pellet would drop into a container. When the rat takes a step going to the lever it is immediately rewarded with food until such time that the rat learned to go quickly straight to the lever. The consequence of receiving food if they pressed the lever ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. Eventually making it a habitual action. For teachers positive reinforcement can be observed simply by rewarding good remarks and compliments to a student by doing good or so. In home, rewards such as food or gadgets is noticeable. Positive reinforcements strengthens a behavior by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding.

Apart from leading into a good behavior positive reinforcement is also used by therapists to cure phobias. Although positive reinforcement takes a new name in a form of systematic desensitization it is still basically positive reinforcement. It is formulated by Joseph Wolpe. For this method it involves the mild exposure of the area of concentration into a more complicated exposure. For example arachnophobia or the fear of spiders, the person can be presented with pictures at first and is rewarded for doing well. Then the individual is to be layed open with small spiders until such time that the person can touch with ease a tarantula.

Negative reinforcement- A negative reinforcement are responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. The removal of an unpleasant reinforces can also strengthen behavior. This is known as negative reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is rewarding to the animal or person. Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience. Skinner showed how negative reinforcement worked by placing a rat in his Skinners box. This Skinners box is different from the one used in the positive reinforcement as this particular box is subjected with discomforting electric current which may cause uneasiness to anything imprisoned in it. As the rat moved around the box it would accidentally knock the lever. Immediately it did so the electric current would be switched off. The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of escaping the electric current ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. These response is also known as...

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