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Essay

393 words - 2 pages

题目(中) 德鲁克《公司的概念》读书报告
(英)
姓名与学号 莉雅 3140300314
指导老师 周洁红
年级与专业 大一 ,旅游管理
所在学院 管理学院

第一章. 一国范围内的资本主义
1. 自由企业体制
1.背景:
战后世界和平与近代西方世界的和平不同,它不再取决于各国的政治、社会、经济信仰和制度能否超越过节走向统一,转而取决于政治、经济体制大相径庭的国家之间是否愿意并且有能力和平共处。
2.作用:
既能为增强国力和增进国内统一奠定基础,又能为其他国家树立榜样;是美国为促进世界和平作出的最重要、最直接的贡献。
3.含义: 不排斥政府对企业的监管或限制,但认为政府的功能在于为企业设立运行的体制;
不排斥政府的管理类或拥有自然垄断的行业或专为国家生产产品的企业,如军工厂。
4.假设:
消费者决定他们需要购买的产品,市场供求而非政治因素决定价格 公司由私人拥有,实行独立管理,以盈利为生产目的,并在竞争的市场中出售其产品。 ...view middle of the document...

 领导问题: 
1需要一个章程,包括合理的规章制度,合理、半自动的继位顺序; 
2激发机构成员的忠诚感、团队精神;机构用人扬长避短;提升成员的知识素养和道德品质,激励员工自觉遵守一定的行为准则  
3机构的组织形式必须有利于挖掘内部人才
4机构的生存和正常运作要求它能够在最高领导人之下培养一匹能独当一面的领导者 
5领导问题要求组织能在正手和副手,核心领导层和外围执行人员之间均衡的分配权力和职责。  
大公司必须克服的四个内在问题: 
1大公司容易想个人独裁的方向发展。 对策:公司必须自设类似的领导岗位,以便考核领导者的领导能力,培养他们的大局观 
2大型公司向来有抑制创新,提倡服从的倾向。 对策:首先必须让每个管理者明白,培养下属是他们的职责所在;还有,把他们的下属和潜在接班人视为一种人力资源,有利于他们自身的利益 
3大公司只能依靠个人的主观印象评估员工的能力和表现。 对策:寻找评估底层管理者能力和表现的客观标准,设法让他们在较低的职位上独当一面 
4无法自动达成专业人才和通才之间的平衡,而通才正是领导艺术的精华所在 对策:边运作边培训 
2. 政策问题: 
1如何在坚持政策和之影变化之间寻求平衡? 
对策:首先要找到一种方法,区分经济形势的变化和情况的暂时变化,经济形势的变化是根本变化,公司必须根据它来调整政策。 
      其次公司还需要一种能够分辨表面利润和实际利润的方法 2遵守会计制度和组织原则是必要的,但是会引发官僚主义作风 对策:只有依靠政策和政策制定者,才能解决以上问题。 
3. 标准问题: 
市场业绩无法对公司的效率和实力做出最直接、可靠的评价,所以公司需要一个能消除外部波动的判断标准,以便客观公正的评价管理人员的表现。  
2. 分权 
通过对美国通用汽车公司的案例,我们可以认识到:其将分权的概念发展成为一套工业管理的理论和地方自治的体系,分权不仅是一种管理手段,更是对社会秩序的概括。公司制订政策的理由,不管他们与核心管理层有多大程度的不同意见。 
分权制度的优点: 

1提高决策速度,消除困惑,是相关人员明白决策的负责人和政策依据; 
2避免各个分布与总部的利益冲突 
3公平对待管理人员 
4管理民主,不拘小节
5消除“少数特权分子”与“绝大多数”管理人员之间的区别 
6管理队伍庞大 
7分权制度意味着碌碌无为的分部管理者不能再依靠其他分部的成功或昔日的辉煌而蒙混度日 
8 意味着“指令式管理”下人人按命令行事,却不知其所以然的情况不复存在  
核心管理层和分部管理层: 
公司内部不存在“通用汽车氛围”,也没有形成“通用汽车风格”。相反,不同分部的风格各异,分部经理的性格和背景千差万别。对此,核心管理层不但允许,而且还极大地鼓励。核心管理层只是负责为分部布置任务,而尽可能不去规定分部应该如何去做。分部经理只要表现良好,就不会受干涉。但是他们必须清楚自己在团队中的位置。                  得益于: 
1.建立一套客观的评价体系,以分部经理对团队的贡献为依据判断他们的表现;  2.相互间交流信息和个人意见,使分部经理及时了解自己在团队中所处的位置和团队的工作情况。  
双向流动: 
权利划分,职责分工,统一行动 
通用汽车的第一个管理要求是:使尽可能多的管理人员理解公司及其分部的政策,问题和规划。信息和决策必须始终保持双向流动:从核心管理层流向分部,以及从分部流向核心管理层。   
管理人员提出批评意见后不仅不会招致惩罚,而且还会受到鼓励,因为这表明他们工作积极,关心企业。他们的意见也总能得到认真地对待。核心管理层始终坚持遵循一个原则:如其用命令压人,不如耐心劝导,以理服人。  
3. 运行机制 ...

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