v (первый семестр)
Expressive means of the language
Language can be neutral and expressive. Expressiveness can be distinguished at all levels of the language. The expressive means of the language are phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms that exist in the language as a system for the purpose of logical and emotional intensification of the utterance. expressive means exist on all the levels of the language. The most powerful are phonetic expressive means including stress, whispering, high/fall alliteration.
Morphological expressive means include the use of second and third persons.
Word-building expressive means - the use of ...view middle of the document...
Stylistic devices have very conspiuitive emotive meaning.
The spoken and written varieties of the language.
The spoken variety was recognised a couple of decades ago. Originally the written variety is more ancient and better studied. Both varieties are different according to the two principles: the aim of communication and the situation of communication. Of the two varieties of the language diachronically the spoken one is primary. Each of these varieties has developed its own features and qualities, which in many ways may be regarded as opposed to each other. The oral variety is maintained in the form of a dialogue. Written in a form of a monologue. The oral variety presupposes the existence of inteloqutor and it is characterised by the speech melody, rhythm, rhyme, individual picularities of the voice. the written variety is deprived of it.
Pecularities of the oral variety:
· abundant use of ellypes [happy to meet you; who you will?]
By the notion of ellypses we understand a simple sentence with the subject or part of a predicate. The object is ommited and the parts which are ommitted can be reconstructed by the means of a situation.
· the use of the direct word order in questions or ommissions of auxilliary verbs [you have been to school?]
· the abundant use of shortenings
· emphatic constructions and words [naive that she is].
· incompleteness of the sentences [you don't come, she will].
· the absence of articles and prepositions [I don't know he'll be here].
· vocabulary pecularities [infant - child - kid]
· the use of simple tenses
Pecularities of the written language
· it is carried out in the form of a monologue; the time of the text perception is different; the author has the time to think the text over.
· the written text is characterised by the developed description, beautiful wording, description of details, exact wording.
· it is characterised by the text segmentation, thus the text falls into paragraphers, chapters, books, volumes, syntactical periods.
· the written text is characterised by complex syntactical constructions, use of the participle, the participal complex, infinitive, gerund.
· the absence of ellypses, conjunctions
· the completeness of the information, no incomplete sentences
· repetitions, parallel constructions, inversions.
Meanings of a word
The lexical meaning of any word is the substance of the word which, being reflected in the minds of people who use the language, contains the fixed notion of the thing or process, which this object denotes.
Any word exists in the language in use; thus it developes the so called contextual meaning, which is a meaning, viewed as a category, which is able to acquire the meaning imposed on the word by the context.
Primary or dictionary/first meaning exists both in the language as a system and in the language in use. It can be emotive meaning and exist in the language as a system. It is materialised as denoting the object. Emotive meaning has...