This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Epidemiology Hepatitis B Essay

1653 words - 7 pages

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a disease that affects many people worldwide and can cause serious and potentially fatal complications. This paper will provide an overview of this disease, including demographic information, while discussing contributing determinants of health, the implications of the epidemiological triangle as it relates to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), the role of the community health nurse, as well as identify a national organization that addresses the disease and how it contributes to reducing the impact on society.
Overview
Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus that multiplies in the liver, causing inflammation that can involve other ...view middle of the document...

Treatment, if required includes medications such as Interferon Alpha, administered three times a week subcutaneously, and the antiviral Lamivudine. Interferon Alpha has been associated with unwanted side effects whereas fewer side effects have been reported with Lamivudine, however, patients can become resistant to Lamivudine with continued treatment (Lavanchy, 2004). A vaccine is available and recommended for all infants, healthcare workers and those at high risk who have not been previously vaccinated. Receiving Hepatitis B immune globulin within 24 hours of exposure to the virus may provide protection against the development of infection in those not vaccinated (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).
Demographics
HBV is the tenth leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths each year. There are 2 billion people infected and 350 million living with the chronic condition. The prevalence varies by region with the highest incidence being Southeast Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa (Lavanchy, 2004). The United States is considered a low prevalence area where there are roughly 0.9 cases per 100,000 people, two-thirds of whom are foreign born. The mortality rate of those in the U.S is reported as 0.5 deaths per 100,000 people. Men are typically infected at a higher rate than women worldwide with the highest prevalence being within the 25-45 year old range for both genders. Over the past ten years the incidence in the U.S. has decreased by 67%. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010).
Determinants of Health
The determinants of health are those factors that affect the health of an individual, community, or population. They fall under one three categories: Social and Economic environment, Physical environment, and Characteristics and Behaviors. The social/economic environmental factors that affect the transmission of HBV include sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, intravenous (IV) drug users, especially those who share needles, and sharing a living space with an infected individual. Physical environmental factors include imprisonment, healthcare workers, employment in a mental health institution, and unsanitary living conditions (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). Characteristics and behaviors that place individuals at risk can include aspects of other categories such as having multiple sexual partners, engaging in IV drug use and the sharing of needles, however, poor self-esteem, depression, and anxiety disorders are a few characteristics that can lead to these behaviors (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).
Epidemiological Triangle
Another way to view HBV is through the epidemiological triangle. This triangle encompasses three factors: A susceptible host, a causative agent, and the environment. All three factors must be present for a disease to cause illness. Any alteration to one of these factors will create a change in the link and disrupt the transmission of the virus (Maurer & Smith, 2013).
Host...

Other assignments on Epidemiology Hepatitis B

The Vc Shakeout Essay

2033 words - 9 pages ECONOMY 26 Luring a big firm to town is not the secret to job growth DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success? VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org FIRST The VC Shakeout Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically

Hospitals Paper

6014 words - 25 pages , how the system really works and how it came to be what it is today. So I will introduce you to the history of Medicare and Medicaid and explain the purpose behind it. Medicare began in 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson and it was first referred to as “The Great Society.” This was to be a federally funded program and was overseen by an organization called HCFA (Healthcare Financing Administration) now known today as CMS. The beneficiaries were

Course Syllabus

2610 words - 11 pages : | | |90 - 100% A; 80 - 89% B; 70 - 79% C; 60 - 69% D; 0 - 59% F | | | | | |Note 1: In order to pass this class you have to have a score of 60% or better on the

Management

1477 words - 6 pages Boeing. He began the Boeing Airplane Company after the construction of a twin-float seaplane, known as B & W. He also made history with his biplane. The biplane was used to deliver the first international airmail from Vancouver to Seattle ("The Boeing Company: History," 1999-2012). According to "The Boeing Company: History" (1999-2012), after the company was started, William found it hard to pay his employees because he was not having as

Assisted Suicide

1015 words - 5 pages Should physician-assisted suicide be legal? While I believe if one chooses to end his or own life through physician assistance for reasons that they chose, the choice should be up to the individual. Physician-assisted suicide should be at one's discretion. “Assisted Suicide, also called Voluntary Euthanasia, is currently a contentious issue in many countries. Because Euthanasia is legal in a few modern democracies: the Netherlands, Belgium

Tanglewood Case 1

797 words - 4 pages Tanglewood’s staffing strategy requires the organization to make key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. In order to accomplish this, Tanglewood’s must make thirteen decisions regarding its staffing levels and its staffing quality. One of the first decisions that Tanglewood needs to choose is to acquire or develop talent. Tanglewood should try to develop their current talent because one

Nnnnn

1391 words - 6 pages Есе по въпроса: Кои от всички „действащи” лица могат да се разглеждат като морално отговорни и в какво именно? по казуса Форд „Пинто” Корпоративните злодеяния са нанесли повече вреди на обществото от всички улични престъпления взети заедно. Според данни на ФБР сумата от уличните престъпления възлиза на $3.8 млрд. годишно, а загубите от корпоративните измами между $100 млрд. и $400 млрд. годишно

The Penis

1052 words - 5 pages The short story ”The Penis” is written by Hanif Kureishi. The short story is about a penis, which has been separated from its owner Doug, who we hear from later on. At first though we hear about a guy called Alfie who was “a cutter – a hairdresser – and had to get to work”. He is having breakfast with his wife, when she asks him what he did last night, and if he had a good time last night? Alfie can not remember what he did last night, he then

Managed Care Paper

543 words - 3 pages Managed Care and Case Management Care Marvin Lloyd BSHS/402-Case Management 27 August 2012 Virgil Miller Managed Care are techniques employed to help reduce the cost for providing health benefits and a system for improving organizations quality of care

Media

439 words - 2 pages The life expectancy is lower; so people are not kept alive with drugs for decades in a virtual sleep state. There is less state education; so kids don't have it drilled into them that their only goal in life is to make money, at the cost of 'everything' else. The health care is less; so diseases, usually brought by Westerners, kill many more than they do in countries where drug companies can make a fortune from selling medicines that aren't

Chapter 6 International Business

7113 words - 29 pages another country or what they can sell to another country. While many nations are nominally committed to free trade, they tend to intervene in international trade to protect the interests of politically important groups. B) The major objective of this chapter is to describe how political realities have shaped, and continue to shape, the international trading system. INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY A) In this section, the text reviews seven main

Similar Documents

A Growing Epidemic Essay

1005 words - 5 pages three types of diseases nationally reportable. Health care providers are only required to report Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chlamydia. There are no national reporting requirements for the other five major sexually transmitted diseases- genital herpes, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, HIV and trichomoniasis (Rolfs & Nakashima, 1998). Society is impacted greatly by the cost of sexually transmitted diseases. The direct medical costs of sexually

Bactol Alcohol Marketing Plan Essay

6716 words - 27 pages | Contents | Page | 1.0 | Executive Summary | 1 | 2.0 | Marketing Aspect of the Disease / Product Function | 2-3 | | 2.1 | Definition (ICD code) | | | 2.2 | Epidemiology | | | 2.3 | Diagnosis | | | 2.4 | Treatment | | | 2.2 | Environmental factors | | 3.0 | Product Background | 3-4 | 4.0 | Target Market | 4-5 | | 4.1 | Market Definition | | | 4.2 | Current Market Value | | | 4.3 | Market Potential

Mgt216 Essay

714 words - 3 pages The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions. G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they

Economy Effect Of Marijuana Essay

277 words - 2 pages Gardens The Draft Propaganda: Dehumanization Internment: Executive Order 9066 Tuskegee Airmen After the War/Cold War GI Bill National Security Act George Marshall-Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift Jackie Robinson Harry Truman Dixiecrats Korean War Joseph McCarthy-2nd Red Scare Dwight Eisenhower, VP Richard Nixon Brinkmanship Sputnik TV: Milton Berle, Ed Sullivan, Game Shows Elvis Presley, Jack Kerouac, James Dean, Marilyn Monroe John Kennedy Richard Nixon John Glenn Peace Corps Bay of Pigs Cuba Fidel Castro Berlin Wall The Cuban Missile Crisis Lee Harvey Oswald Lyndon B Johnson