1.Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The perception is important bcs – people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important. Why We Study Perceptions
• We study this topic to better understand how people make
attributions about events.
• We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it
• The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of
the truth of the attribution
Factors Influencing Perception
• The Perceiver
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It is the employee’s perception of a situation that becomes the basis for his or her behavior. The employee who perceives his/her supervisor as a hurdle reducer who helps him/her do a better job and the employee who sees the same supervisor as “big brother, closely monitoring every motion, to ensure that I keep working” will differ in their behavioral responses to their supervisor. The difference has nothing to do with the reality of the supervisor’s actions; the difference in employee behavior is due to different perceptions.The evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself. Whether or not a job is actually interesting or challenging is irrelevant. Whether or not a manager successfully plans and organizes the work of his or her employees and actually helps the employees to structure their work more efficiently and effectively is far less important than how employees perceive the manager’s efforts. Similarly, issues like fair pay for work performed, the validity of performance appraisals, and the adequacy of working conditions are not judged by employees in a way that assures common perceptions, nor can we be assured that individuals will interpret conditions about their jobs in a favorable light. Therefore, to be able to influence productivity, it is necessary to assess how workers perceive their jobs. Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. Dissatisfaction withworking conditions or the belief that there is a lack of promotion opportunities in the organization are judgmentsbased on attempts to make some meaning out of one’s job. The employee’s conclusion that a job is good or bad is an interpretation. Managers must spend time understanding how each individual interprets reality and, where there is a significant difference between what is seen and what exists, try to eliminate the distortions. Failure to deal with the differences when individuals perceive the job in negative terms will result in increased absenteeism and turnover and lower job satisfaction.
2. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy).
Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence
1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)
3. Valence- V(R)
Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of...