This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

English Essay

2284 words - 10 pages

1.Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The perception is important bcs – people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important. Why We Study Perceptions
• We study this topic to better understand how people make
attributions about events.
• We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it
reality.
• The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of
the truth of the attribution
Factors Influencing Perception
• The Perceiver
...view middle of the document...

It is the employee’s perception of a situation that becomes the basis for his or her behavior. The employee who perceives his/her supervisor as a hurdle reducer who helps him/her do a better job and the employee who sees the same supervisor as “big brother, closely monitoring every motion, to ensure that I keep working” will differ in their behavioral responses to their supervisor. The difference has nothing to do with the reality of the supervisor’s actions; the difference in employee behavior is due to different perceptions.The evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself. Whether or not a job is actually interesting or challenging is irrelevant. Whether or not a manager successfully plans and organizes the work of his or her employees and actually helps the employees to structure their work more efficiently and effectively is far less important than how employees perceive the manager’s efforts. Similarly, issues like fair pay for work performed, the validity of performance appraisals, and the adequacy of working conditions are not judged by employees in a way that assures common perceptions, nor can we be assured that individuals will interpret conditions about their jobs in a favorable light. Therefore, to be able to influence productivity, it is necessary to assess how workers perceive their jobs. Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. Dissatisfaction withworking conditions or the belief that there is a lack of promotion opportunities in the organization are judgmentsbased on attempts to make some meaning out of one’s job. The employee’s conclusion that a job is good or bad is an interpretation. Managers must spend time understanding how each individual interprets reality and, where there is a significant difference between what is seen and what exists, try to eliminate the distortions. Failure to deal with the differences when individuals perceive the job in negative terms will result in increased absenteeism and turnover and lower job satisfaction.

2. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy).[5]
Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence
1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)
3. Valence- V(R)
Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of...

Other assignments on English

English Paper

507 words - 3 pages Catherine Edwards Ledbetter English 1010 8 September 2015 When I was about 17 years old my friends and I would go to this place we call “The Clift’s”. It had the best and chilliest people I have ever met. Everyone had the best vibes. It was the most peaceful place I’ve ever been. We used to do rebellious things behind the curtain of trees. The best part: The warm beautiful lake that I got to dive into for hours. The Clift’s has always

English Brochure Essay

954 words - 4 pages Eliza English 160 Brochure: Brighton University We all have that one big decision to make in our lives, and that is choosing a university to attend to pursue our career. Let this brochure guide you to the right path, which is choosing Brighton University. The way the brochure was made has many reasons why. The colors and format was laid out for the audience’s attention to be captured. The color selection was based on the primary colors

English 101

1285 words - 6 pages Bryce Pippenger Jennifer Hawk English 101 8/30/12 Gas mileage vs power behind the wheel: The Difference in Advertising vehicles The vehicle a person drives can tell a lot about that person, for example if someone is driving a beat up old car or pickup odds are that that person will get judged in a negative way. This also plays a role in social status and attracting the opposite sex in some cases. Advertisers take a huge risk by

English Literauture

1986 words - 8 pages CLASS –X ENGLISH NCERT SOLUTIONS LITERATURE READER TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA Answers Answer1: Answer2: I think the story is about a person who bears amiable nature. The story is based on the theme of human ethics. Answer4.1: (a) the boys were untidy and poorly dressed Answer4.2: (b) willingness to work Answer4.3: (a) did not want a stranger to become involved with their plans Answer4.4: (a) he did not want to intrude into their privacy Answer4.5

English

476 words - 2 pages 4-08-12 College graduates earn seventy three percent more over their working lives than high school graduates, according to the College Board's Education Pays 2008 report. Those with advanced degrees earn double or even triple that of high school graduates. Online education has seen huge growth in the past 20 years, and the continued exponential growth of computer power and the internet is enabling online colleges and universities to

English

669 words - 3 pages The man The man with the hat sat exactly opposite to the empty bench, leaning with his hands on his cane and stared right through me. He smelled of vinegar. Only just a little bit, but then caught myself this sour smell like an ominous, biting shaft. I ignored it, as best they could, but it astounded me. After a few minutes, a single black fly sat on the label of his greasy jacket. A short time later, there were already two. They ran up to

English

608 words - 3 pages There a number of factors pertaining to genetic mapping and testing for future health problems that can create dilemmas for both the patient and the health care providers. There is always uncertainty and numerous variables when genes pose the probability of predisposition to certain diseases. As to the procedure in which this problem is addressed one needs “To uncover the patient’s genetic background.” In cases of certain types of cancer, for

English - 719 words

719 words - 3 pages Ten Ways School Prepares You for the Work World The first day you pack a briefcase and head off to a professional job interview may seem far away, but the time to build strong skills and valuable habits is now. School is full of opportunities to develop the qualities most important to employers. Writing Skills If you dread essays and other writing assignments, consider this: in a recent survey of employers, communication topped the list of

English - 1604 words

1604 words - 7 pages TermPaperWriter.org © 2009 TermPaperWriter.org 1 Importance of undergraduate training to produce useful industry resources TermPaperWriter.org © 2009 TermPaperWriter.org 2 Abstract Training needs in any degree program is a must to produce employable graduates. It was observed that there were plenty of job vacancies in the market with an equally good number of graduates unemployed. The industry lamented of the manpower being

English - 2083 words

2083 words - 9 pages Section 1: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 1 What is it about Madonna that made her such a trans-continental superstar? The answer to this question is as varied and covers as wide a range of factor as the subject herself. At the peak of her career she once said, Sometimes I get this scary feeling that I could do anything.’ She has an exceptional range of creative talents and has achieved success in several

English - 619 words

619 words - 3 pages Student number: 156854 Name: Zhang Jiahao Chapter 3 1. Search the web for recent review of project management software. Which packages seem to be most popular? What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each package? What advice would you give to someone intending to buy project management software for his or her PC? Why? 2. Which of the four phases of the project management process do you feel is most challenging? Why

Similar Documents

English Essay 1695 Words

1695 words - 7 pages the use of English as the medium of expression of African experience defining the relevance of colonial and post-colonial experience to the present .Achebe’s novels are dialectic tranformation of experience, a new way of looking at tradition to create a different order of reality through universalizing imagination.Though he has followed the established tradition of novel writing in English, Achebe has put few things ‘African’ and has

English Essay 597 Words

597 words - 3 pages Simon 1  Cole Simon  Mrs. Metcalfe  English 9, Period C  14 January 2016  Paragraphs on Word Types    An action verb is a verb that tells what action someone or something is performing. An  action verb can be either a physical (kick, play) or mental verb (think, like). Action verbs can  also be ten of the twelve linking verbs except (became or seem). Action verbs can be either a  transitive verb or an intransitive verb. The way you

English Literature Essay

934 words - 4 pages Hassiba Ben Bouali University Common trunk of human sciences Level: First year Learning English English language Learning is widely spread over different parts of the world. It is taught as a foreign language in many countries. In many others, it is not only considered as a

English Paper

389 words - 2 pages English lV 2A October 16, 2013 A lot of things have changed since Anglo time between men and women. Back then men and women did not have equal rights. Women were not allowed o do what they wanted to. Men did everything while women just stayed home and did house duties. Now women are very independent, working, and getting education. Now a lot of women are doing better than men. There was a time when women were lower in status to men in every