This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Endocrine Disruptors Essay

2561 words - 11 pages

A variety of chemicals have been shown to disrupt female reproductive function throughout the lifespan in laboratory animals and humans (e.g., diethylstilbestrol). These effects include the disruption of normal sexual differentiation, ovarian function (i.e., follicular growth, ovulation, corpus luteum formation and maintenance), fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy. Only a few agents are associated with direct interference with the endocrine reproductive axis. Examples are those with estrogenic activity or the potential to interact with the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Exposure to toxicants during development is of particular concern because many feedback mechanisms functioning in ...view middle of the document...

It has been hypothesized that exposure to organochlorines, some pesticides, and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons might play a role in the etiology of mammary gland neoplasms via an endocrine disruption pathway, perhaps via an estrogen-mimetic route or alternate estrogen pathways. With respect to the possible role of hormone disruption by chemicals in the occurrence
of breast cancer, there is a lack of sufficient evidence implicating organochlorines in this disease.
ii. Male Reproductive System
Convincing evidence exists in rodents that exposure to chemicals that have estrogenic activity, reduce androgen levels, or otherwise interfere with the action of androgen during development can cause male reproductive system abnormalities that include reduced sperm production capability and reproductive tract abnormalities.
Little is known about the causes of human prostatic cancer, but age, genetics, diet,
endocrine status, and environmental risk factors have been proposed. With respect to the
cause(s) of human prostate cancer, a single retrospective epidemiology study has linked a weak but statistically significant association between acres sprayed with herbicides and prostate cancer deaths. Furthermore, an occupational study of coke oven workers has found an association of coke oven emission with significant excess mortality from cancer of the prostate. Whether herbicide or polyaromatic hydrocarbon exposure contributes to the increasing incidence of human adenocarcinoma of the prostate and whether the mechanism is by way of an endocrine disruption remain to be determined.

iii. Hypothalamus and Pituitary
There are a number of ways that environmental agents may alter neuroendocrine function both during development and in the sexually mature organism. Exposure during development may be of particular concern because many of the feedback functions of the endocrine system are not operational during this period, permanent changes in endocrine function may be induced at levels of exposure to a toxicant that may have no effect in the adult animal, and compounds that may be considered antiestrogenic in the adult (i.e., tamoxifen, dioxin) may act as estrogens in the developing organism. Similarly, exposure to such agents in the adult can modify the feedback of endogenous hormones as well as behavior (i.e., libido, appetite, aggression) of the individual. Because of the complex role that the central nervous system plays in regulating endocrine function, cells within the brain are a potential target for environmental chemicals that have no impact on steroid hormones directly but yet will lead to a disruption of endocrine function.

iv. Thyroid
Numerous environmental agents have been found to alter thyroid hormone levels (e.g., urea derivatives, polyhalogenated biphenyls, and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins). Thyroid hormones are critical to normal growth and development; thus, developmental exposures may have lasting adverse effects.

2. Ecological...

Other assignments on Endocrine Disruptors

Course Syllabus Essay

2610 words - 11 pages [pic] COURSE SYLLABUS Semester: Fall, Year: 2012  College Mission Statement Richard J. Daley College provides high-quality education which leads to academic success, career development, and personal enrichment that fulfill diverse community needs. Mathematics Department Mission Statement Our mission is to deliver excellent service and to provide learning opportunities by offering a wide range of mathematics courses, which will help our

Management Essay

1477 words - 6 pages Boeing Management Planning Heather Oetzel MGT 330 October 22, 2012 Joe Cheng Abstract Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us", 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the

Assisted Suicide

1015 words - 5 pages Should physician-assisted suicide be legal? While I believe if one chooses to end his or own life through physician assistance for reasons that they chose, the choice should be up to the individual. Physician-assisted suicide should be at one's discretion. “Assisted Suicide, also called Voluntary Euthanasia, is currently a contentious issue in many countries. Because Euthanasia is legal in a few modern democracies: the Netherlands, Belgium

Tanglewood Case 1

797 words - 4 pages Tanglewood’s staffing strategy requires the organization to make key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. In order to accomplish this, Tanglewood’s must make thirteen decisions regarding its staffing levels and its staffing quality. One of the first decisions that Tanglewood needs to choose is to acquire or develop talent. Tanglewood should try to develop their current talent because one


1391 words - 6 pages Есе по въпроса: Кои от всички „действащи” лица могат да се разглеждат като морално отговорни и в какво именно? по казуса Форд „Пинто” Корпоративните злодеяния са нанесли повече вреди на обществото от всички улични престъпления взети заедно. Според данни на ФБР сумата от уличните престъпления възлиза на $3.8 млрд. годишно, а загубите от корпоративните измами между $100 млрд. и $400 млрд. годишно

The Penis

1052 words - 5 pages The short story ”The Penis” is written by Hanif Kureishi. The short story is about a penis, which has been separated from its owner Doug, who we hear from later on. At first though we hear about a guy called Alfie who was “a cutter – a hairdresser – and had to get to work”. He is having breakfast with his wife, when she asks him what he did last night, and if he had a good time last night? Alfie can not remember what he did last night, he then

Managed Care Paper

543 words - 3 pages Managed Care and Case Management Care Marvin Lloyd BSHS/402-Case Management 27 August 2012 Virgil Miller Managed Care are techniques employed to help reduce the cost for providing health benefits and a system for improving organizations quality of care


439 words - 2 pages The life expectancy is lower; so people are not kept alive with drugs for decades in a virtual sleep state. There is less state education; so kids don't have it drilled into them that their only goal in life is to make money, at the cost of 'everything' else. The health care is less; so diseases, usually brought by Westerners, kill many more than they do in countries where drug companies can make a fortune from selling medicines that aren't

Chapter 6 International Business

7113 words - 29 pages CGGGG The Political Economy of International Trade Chapter Outline OPENING CASE: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring? INTRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY Tariffs Subsides Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints Local Content Requirements Administrative Polices Antidumping Policies Management Focus: U.S. Magnesium

Scope And Goals

279 words - 2 pages Introduction: Kudler Fine Foods is a specialty food store based in San Diego, California with its three locations in La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas. Kudler Fine food prides itself on offering fresh and organic products that are carefully selected from local farmers and around the world. The organization has recently taken the initiative to start a Frequent Shopper Program to market and increase sales. This program will offer the customers a


251 words - 2 pages Meerkat The meerkat or suricate, Suricata suricatta, is a small mammal belonging to the mongoose family. Meerkats live in all parts of theKalahari Desert in Botswana, in much of the Namib Desert in Namibia and southwestern Angola, and in South Africa. A group of meerkats is called a "mob", "gang" or "clan". A meerkat clan often contains about 20 meerkats, but some super-families have 50 or more members. In captivity, meerkats have an average

Similar Documents

Mgt216 Essay

714 words - 3 pages The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions. G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they

Economy Effect Of Marijuana Essay

277 words - 2 pages Modern American History by Alan Renga 2nd Mid Term! You will be given 3 Short Essay questions and 20 Multiple Choice questions deriving from this list! 80 points total! The 1920s Warren Harding then Calvin Coolidge Tea Pot Dome 1st Red Scare Immigration Restriction, Sacco and Vanzetti Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey, KKK Prosperity, advertising Prohibition, Al Capone Flappers, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

The Vc Shakeout Essay

2033 words - 9 pages ECONOMY 26 Luring a big firm to town is not the secret to job growth DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success? VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame New Thinking, Research in Progress New Thinking, Research in Progress FIRST The VC Shakeout Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically

Hospitals Paper

6014 words - 25 pages I hope to provide in this paper a comprehensive understanding for what the term “hospital” has become. Hospitals are an extremely complex system that man has created and shaped and reshaped throughout history. My goal in writing and researching this paper will be to provide those who read it a clear understanding on how the hospital system got to where it is today, and to shed some light on the many organizations that affiliate with and