Electronic Engineer Essay

1568 words - 7 pages

Paola Díaz, Nathaly Morales, Jeisson Rodríguez y Mireya Vásquez
INFLACIÓN EN COLOMBIA
La inflación es un factor muy importante en la historia de la economía a nivel mundial, este se conoce como el aumento de los bienes y servicios que afecta en primer estancia a los consumidores, a los inversionistas, al estado y asi mismo al crecimiento económico de un país.
Por lo tanto el siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo comprender claramente el concepto de inflación para lo cual es necesario dar su definición y algunos ejemplos para su pleno entendimiento. Posteriormente analizaremos los índices de inflación desde la decada de los cincuenta en Colombia dando a conocer porque ha tenido cambios ...view middle of the document...

Y si las condiciones no están dadas la oferta monetaria (M) afectara la demanda y eso a su vez afectara los precios. Por último la tasa de cambio afecta los precios debido a la devaluación que es cuando debo entregar más de la moneda nacional por una moneda extranjera, esto afecta a los precios debido a que si un productor quiere importar insumos debe pagar más pesos por el producto y esto produce un alza en los precios del mercado. En Colombia existe una tasa representativa del mercado (TRM) que es la cantidad de pesos colombianos por un dólar de los Estados Unidos, esta tasa es importante porque la mayoría de las transacciones internacionales se realizan en dólares americanos.
En Colombia la inflación se mide por medio del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC) este índice incluye alimentación, vivienda, vestuario, salud, educación, cultura, esparcimiento, transporte, comunicaciones, entre otros. Sin embargo este índice no incluye la totalidad de los bienes como son los bienes de lujo y los insumos esto es debido a que el IPC analiza principalmente la canasta familiar en la clase media y baja.
Un ejemplo claro de la inflación se puede observar en la siguiente tabla con el cambio de los precios de la canasta familiar entre los años 1970 y 1971, generando una inflación del 23%.

AÑO | 1970 | 1971 |
Alimentos | $3,200 | $4,000 |
Salud | $1,000 | $1,500 |
Vivienda | $2,000 | $2,500 |
Educación | $2,500 | $2,800 |
Vestuario | $200 | $200 |
Actividades de Entretenimiento | $300 | $400 |
Transporte | $500 | $600 |
TOTAL | $10,000 | $12,300 |

Como podemos ver en el siguiente cuadro (inflación en Colombia desde 1955 a 2012) el comportamiento de la inflación ha viariado radicalmente teniendo las mayores cifras en los años anteriores a 1999, durante los últimos años la inflación en Colombia ha cambiado positivamente pasando de una inflación de 32.37% en 1990 a 2.44% en el año 2012, de los años cincuenta a los años noventa la inflación era muy alta con inflaciones anuales de hasta 28.28%, después de los años noventa la inflación ha disminuido notablemente. Estos cambios se deben a diferente hechos que han alterado la economía Colombiana.

En 1955 había una sobrevaluación de la tasa de cambio real y crisis en la balanza de pagos, para pagar la deuda del sector externo que exisitia en estos años se expidió el decreto 107 de 1957 cuyo principal obejtivo era crear una balanza comercial positiva y eliminar la sobrevaluación de la tasa de cambio, esto limito las importaciones con altos aranceles y establecio impuestos del 15% a las exportaciones y un gravamen del 10% sobre los giros para recaudar fondos para pagar la deuda externa y esto a su vez causó una devaluación del peso colombiano de 91% e hizo que la tasa de cambio aumentara, como consecuencia de este aumento de la tasa de cambio, los precios de los bienes importados suben y como hay empresas que trabajan con insumos extranjeros estas tambien tienen que subir sus precios,...

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