THE EFFECTS OF DAY CARE ON THE EMOTIONAL, SOCIAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
Day care is a temporary place where a child is taken care of during the day. It’s usually a care provided not by a family member or someone well known by the child and take place outside the home. This includes child-minding and in a day nursery. Leaving the child at a child-minder is usually seen as preferable form of day care for many parents because the care the child receives is more likely to be similar to the care he or she would receive at home. The other more commonly used is the day nursery and they can be found variety of locations.
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Belsky and Rovine (1988) did a combined study and concluded that there was a heightened risk of an insecure attachment among infants who enter day care before their first birthday. A large number of analysis and studies have confirmed Belskys original conclusion. Others like Lamb ET AL (1992) also concluded that there may indeed be a link between some aspect of day care and security of attachment but that we simply don’t know yet what the link is.
DAY CARE HAS NO EFFECT ON THE CHILDS EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Downs ET AL (2004) suggested that with a few exceptions studies have not found major differences in mother child attachment between children reared at home and those reared in day care. This suggests that day care does not have a negative impact on a child’s emotional development. Clarke-Stewart ET AL (1994) discusses that it depends whether the child was spending his daytime hours in an organised, well-structured situation or in a messy un-stimulating one.
Based on the evidence available the reasonable conclusion appears to be that day care by itself does not lead to insecure attachments but if that day care is of poor quality it can worsen a risky situation at home and increase the likelihood that infants will have problems forming a secure attachment to their mothers.
WHAT IS MEANT BY SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
When psychologists consider social development of children they are interested in two aspects of the growing up process. First is the development of sociability in children i.e. the tendency to enjoy company of their peers and to make relationships. Sociability is thought to be an inmate part of the child’s temperament which makes the process more or less difficult for the child. Second is the socialisation process i.e. the process by which an individual acquires the knowledge, values, social skills and sensitivity to others that enables him or her to became a part of society. With both of these aspects of social development there is an assumption that children acquire appropriate behaviours that are adaptive for their particular society. This is the argument surrounding the value of day care in this respect. Day care has negative effects on children’s social development, Belsky and Rovine(1988) assessed attachment in infants who had been receiving 20hours or more of day care per week before 1year old. These children were found to be more likely to be insecurely attached compared with children at home. Dilalla (1998) found that children who experienced little or no day care were more likely to behave prosaically suggesting that day care may inhabit socialisation.
Bates ET AL (1994) found that kindergarten children who spent a lot of time in day...