EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM MOBILE PHONE ON THE LEVELS OF CORTICAL AMINO ACID NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN ADULT AND YOUNG RATS
Y.A. KHADRAWY*, NAWAL A. AHMED**, HEBA S. ABOUL EZZ**, N.M. RADWAN** *Medical Physiology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt **Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Abstract. The present study aims to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) generated by mobile phones on the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters; glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and taurine in the cortex of adult and young rats. Several studies showed that EMR could influence normal brain physiology, probably by changing ...view middle of the document...
Several studies have indicated that EMF emitted from mobile phone could affect brain activity; including sleep , attention , learning and memory [20, 21] and cognitive performance . However, several authors did not find any effect for
___________________________ Received: September 2009; in final form October 2009. ROMANIAN J. BIOPHYS., Vol. 19, No. 4, P. 295–305, BUCHAREST, 2009
Y.A. Khadrawy et al.
EMF on memory and cognitive function [10, 22] and histopathological parameters  when replicating their previous findings. It has been suggested that the brain harm from mobile phone might derive from the proven ability of electromagnetic fields such as those from mobile phone to modify electrophysiological activity in human brain  and to alter neurotransmission [1, 16, 23, 25]. Moreover, evidence of oxidative damage was found in the brain tissues when rats were exposed to (RF/MW) radiation . It has been concluded that EMF like the ones emitted from mobile phones influence normal brain physiology, probably by means of changing cortical excitability . The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz, power density 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate (SAR) 1.165 W/kg on amino acid neurotransmitters in the cortex of adult and young male albino rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experimental animal used in this study is the male albino rat Rattus norvegicus. Both young (one month old) and adult (four months old) animals were used and provided with food and water ad libitum. All experiments were carried out in accordance with research protocols established by the animal care committee of the National Research Center, Egypt.
ELECTROMAGNETIC EXPOSURE SETUP
The electromagnetic field was generated by a radiofrequency (RF) source which simulated the actual sources encountered in mobile communications such as stations, handsets, etc. This source consisted of: (1) an RF signal generator (Aeroflex Company, Model : 2025,UK) with an RF output level up to 13 dBm and a frequency range of 0 – 2.5 GHz, (2) two monopole antennas set in parallel with the help of a T-junction, each being designed so that the reflection coefficient at its input is not more than –12 dBm and fed by a coaxial line through a BNC connector, (3) a power amplifier (Stealth Microwave, Model: SM 0520-36, SSB Technologies, Inc.) to supply a power intensity of 0.02 mW/cm2 at the rat location, which is equal to the average power radiated from an actual mobile communication source and (4) a field survey meter (Narda, EMR200, frequency from 0 to 4 GHz, Germany) to measure the power intensity of electromagnetic fields at different distances from the generator.
GSM radiation effect at cortical level ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE
At the beginning of the experiment, the RF signal generator output was connected to the power amplifier whose output was in turn...