THE PROBLEM AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 Background of the Study
The current era places big emphasis on the role of instructional supervision in the development of the education and improvement of student learning outcomes. It’s not the sole responsibility of the teachers to bear the tasks of delivering basic education services to the clienteles but rather a two-way process between them and the instructional leaders. As Ekyaw (2004) states it, it’s an interactive process that depends on the source supervisor and the teacher.
Instructional Supervision (IS) is the phase of school administration which focusesprimarily upon the achievement of the appropriate expectations of ...view middle of the document...
Inclusive education has pave way across the globe particularly through the Education For All (EFA) movement in 1990 and 2000 (UNESCO, 2000). In the Philippines, the Nonformal Education Program was introduced and was revolutionized in 2004 through the Alternative Learning System (ALS) as a response to the EFA movement (Philippine Education for All 2015 Review Report, 2015).
The ALS Programs and Projects are catered and delivered in the district level. It is supervised by the PSDSs and manned primarily by the District ALS Coordinators (DALSCs) and ALS Mobile Teachers (AMTs). It is also receiving instructional supervision from the PSDSs for the overall program management and implementation.
The Curriculum Implementation Division (CID) (2015) also reported that in there are twelve (12) districts who scored a negative performance rating in the A&E exam for the past three (3) years. This shows an indication of a weak performance in the said major program of the ALS. Also, this negatively reflects the kind of services of the division for the said case.
This posits a question on the kind of performance being given by its implementers as well as to the kind of supervision they received from their instructional leaders. The negative performance depicted in the data acquired for three (3) years should not be left behind. It needs to be properly addressed not only for an increased performance but rather on making its educational services more effective and meaningful to the clienteles.
With the surfaced scenario, the researcher dwelled on to examine the current situation and on how to address it responsively. Likewise, Villenes, Villenes, Oseña & Quintela (2015) and Villenes, Villenes, Oseña, Quintela, Papa & Francia (2015) noted that there is a need for an increased and enhanced instructional supervision for the management of ALS programs & projects.
In this sense, the researcher sought to identify the characteristics of the IS services given to ALS, the supervisory practices extended to the ALS teachers in terms of the teaching-learning process, program & project implementation &program support, and also the extent of IS services given by the District Instructional Supervision Section (DISS) to them.
1.2 Literature Review
In aid of gathering and understanding matters concerning instructional supervision, the researcher made use of various literatures that will be of a great help to further increase the basis and foundation of this research undertaking.
In the article written by Fisher (2014), she noted that through the effective supervision of instruction, educational leaders can empower and increase teaching practices and capacities that will contribute to further improve student learning and outcomes. Through skillfully analyzing performance and appropriate data, instructional leaders can provide meaningful feedback and direction to teachers that can have a profound effect on the learning that occurs in each classroom. Since student...